This contemporary, online and digital Dejerine’s Atlas consists of various chapters that were listed on pages 310 to 311 in the original Dejerine’s atlas, together with an account of the abbreviations used in the drawings provided by H. Gillet.
Dejerine started by describing the lateral fossa (01) then the insula (02) and the central lobe (03) corresponding to the pre‐central and the post‐ central gyri (the first belonging to the frontal lobe, the second to the parietal lobe). Dejerine continued with the frontal (04), parietal (05), temporal (06), and occipital (07) lobes. Dejerine finished by providing an account of the limbic lobe (08) that corresponds to the description of the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus and the hippocampus.
Each chapter presents a translation of the terms listed by Dejerine on pages 310 and 311 that have been adapted to today’s terminology, except when it is not possible to find equivalent terms in the Terminologia Anatomica (TA: Terminologia anatomica, 1998, Georg Thieme Verlag). In such cases, a simple translation of Dejerine’s terminology is used.
Each anatomical term is defined in accordance with Dejerine’s description in his atlas. The definition of a term starts with the anatomical term found in the Terminologia Anatomica in English, Latin, French, and Spanish. In addition, we provide the numerical classifications found within both the Terminologia Anatomica and the Terminologia Humana Anatomica (THA Fribourg. unifr.ch/ifaa ).
Based on the descriptions within the Dejerine atlas, the cytoarchitectural boundaries of the cortical mantle have been manually delineated in 3D on the 400μm resolution BigBrain (Amuntz et al., 2013), using MRICron [http:/www.mricro.com]. A 3D reconstruction of the drawings using Vizua 3D has allowed us to add labels and to offer descriptions of the anatomical terms.
The Dejerines (p244-245) were very careful about describing the links between two gyri of two different lobes, calling such links plis de passage (literally crossing fold or gyri). On occasions such gyri have also been called annectant gyri (Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004). We decided to keep the term plis de passage as it is used in numerous papers otherwise written in English (i.e. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004).
Below is listed the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations and, when available, Gillet’s drawings (p310-311)
(see example below)
Musée Dupyutren and Fondation Dejerine; Students who participated in the project and all the participants.
Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels )
Fossa lateralis cerebri
Fosse cérébrale latérale
Fosa lateral cerebral
Dejerine: (p 105; 128-129) Fosse sylvienne
The description of the lateral cerebral fossa is included in the chapter dedicated to the brain’s development. The lateral surface of the axial portion of the embryonic (anterior) brain constitutes the lateral fossa. Around the fourth week of embryonic life, the lateral fossa displays a slight depression that becomes increasingly deeper the more the cortex extends during the following weeks. At this stage, the lateral cerebral fossa forms the first rudiment of the lateral sulcus. Around the third month of embryonic life, the lateral cerebral fossa takes the shape of an arch that is vertically oriented. The anterior and posterior segments of that arch demarcate the lobe from the insula, whereas the olfactory lateral stria limits their lower extremity. At the beginning of the fourth month, the lateral cerebral fossa expands, becoming narrower and projecting obliquely superiorly and anteriorly. The oblique orientation is most probably linked to the development of the occipital lobe. The anterior segment curves further with the development of the fronto-parietal lobe that essentially takes the shape of an operculum during the fifth month. When expanding, the operculum extends more and more over the lateral cerebral fossa. When developing, the operculum gives rise to the anterior and superior branches of the lateral sulcus. The operculum extends over the lobe of the insula that developed at the level of the lateral cerebral fossa. The insula lies deeply buried, and thus hidden, in the depths of the lateral sulcus as a result of further development of the frontal lobe anteriorly, of the temporal lobe inferiorly, and of the parietal lobe superiorly.
Dejerine : (p246-248) Scissure de Sylvius [S]. Grande scissure interlobaire (Chaussier). Fissure lateralis (Henle). Scissure de Sylvius (Broca). Fissure of Sylvius (Turner, Ferrier).
The lateral sulcus becomes visible very early in the embryonic brain. Its development is closely linked to the development of the corpus striatum of the forebrain. Its first rudiments appear as early as the end of the first month of embryonic life, under a slight depression known as the lateral fossa. The lateral sulcus is the deepest of the interlobar sulci. It appears as a cleft that is obliquely oriented superiorly and posteriorly. It is deep and prominent, separates the frontal and parietal lobes, and is situated above from the temporal lobe. It begins on the inferior surface of the brain, on the lateral part of the anterior perforated substance that extends from the inside of the fissure in the human. However, it is the lateral olfactory stria that demarcates its anterior limit. The lateral sulcus runs first anteriorly and laterally before curving on the inferior surface of the brain where the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone protrude into it. In this very short part of its course, it demarcates the orbital part of the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe and is referred to as the trunk of the lateral sulcus. When reaching the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, it projects posteriorly and runs obliquely superiorly. At the level of the short gyri of insula, it divides into anterior and posterior rami. In reality, the lateral sulcus divides into three rami, a horizontal anterior ramus [S(a)], a vertical ascending ramus [S(v)], parts of the anterior ramus, and a posterior ramus [S(p)]. The temporal and parietal lobes merge through plis de passage that are constant, either superficial or deep, at the level of the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. The superficial pli de passage is referred to as the supra-marginalis gyrus [Gsm]. The deep pli de passage that is often split into two or three folds, is buried within the lateral sulcus, posteriorly to the insula. It is referred to as the retro-insular region [Tp] (or transverse gyri in the Dejerine’s atlas) and is part of the temporal lobe.
THA : 5989
Dejerine: (p246-248) Rameau horizontal antérieur.
The anterior ramus that is much shorter, separates into an Y shaped formation with an anterior horizontal ramus [S(a)] and an ascending vertical ramus [S(v)]. These two rami, 2 to 3 centimetres in length, are deep and prominent and cut to its whole extent the superior margin of the lateral cerebral fossa. They sometimes arise directly from the lateral cerebral fossa, forming a “V” instead of a “Y” shaped formation. The anterior horizontal ramus [S(a)], the most significant and the most constant, runs along the same course as the posterior ramus and extends into the frontal lobe. It is very deep and occupies the whole depth of the inferior frontal gyrus [F3], demarcating the limit between the lateral surface and the orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus. The cerebral cortex between the anterior horizontal ramus and the posterior ramus is referred to as the operculum. It forms the superior margin of the lateral cerebral fossa and covers a lobe located in the depth of the lateral sulcus, the insula of Reil or insular lobe.
THA : 5988
Dejerine : (p246-248) rameau ascendant vertical [S(v)]
The vertical ascending ramus separates from the anterior horizontal ramus at a more or less obtuse angle and projects superiorly and anteriorly into the posterior section of the inferior frontal gyrus [F3]. These two rami, anterior ramus and vertical ramus, are notable in humans because of their constancy. They delimit a small triangular shaped lobule with a tip bulging in the lateral cerebral fossa. Broca refers to this formation as the “cape of the inferior frontal gyrus or triangular part”.
Dejerine: (p246-248) Rameau postérieur; branche postérieure; grande branche.
The posterior ramus [S(p)] of the lateral sulcus is the longest ramus. It runs along the main direction of the lateral cerebral fossa. It runs obliquely superiorly and posteriorly and separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe. After a course of 8 to 10 centimetres towards the middle part of the parietal lobe, it ends with a double spur that bounds anteriorly the supramarginal gyrus [Gsm]. The superior spur is often very short. It sometimes notches deeply into the inferior parietal gyrus. The inferior spur, that is most often very short and shallow, separates the superior temporal gyrus [T1] from the supramarginal gyrus [Gsm]. The superior margin of the posterior ramus of the lateral cerebral fossa shows, at the level of the parietal lobe, one, two and sometimes three deep notches referred to as the parietal notch(es) of Broca [ipop]. The frontal lobe sometimes displays a similar notch anteriorly to the inferior fronto-parietal pli de passage [OpR] (or subcentral gyrus, i.e. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004). It is referred to as the frontal notch of Brissaud [ifop].
(See: Posterior ramus)
(See: Posterior ramus)
(See: Posterior ramus)
Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels )
Insula; lobus insularis
Lobe de l’insula; Insula
Insula; lóbulo de la insula
THA : 6030
Dejerine : (p279-283) Lobe de l'insula [I], Lobule du corps strié, Insula de Reil
Deeply buried in the depths of the lateral cerebral fossa, the insula is completely covered with the frontal, the parietal and the temporal lobes. It cannot be seen on the surface of the brain that is covered by the meninges. In order to see it one must move apart the edges of the lateral fossa. This little lobule has not always been so deeply buried. In the fetus, when the lateral sulcus is widely spread and forms the lateral fossa, the insular lobe, presents itself loosely on the lateral surface or convex surface of the anterior brain. It even constitutes the pivot around which the subsequent development of the vesicle takes place, having the frontal lobe anteriorly, the parietal lobe superiorly and the temporal lobe inferiorly. During their development, the three lobes cover the insula, the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe on a wider surface compared to the temporal lobe, all of them forming together a real operculum. The gyri of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes surrounding this lobule considered as a whole, are referred to by Foville as the enclosure of the insula. In adults, when one parts the edge of the lateral sulcus, the insula appears as a slightly conical protrusion. The tip (or pole) of the insula of Broca is oriented anteriorly and inferiorly, whereas its base is triangular in shape. The angles of this base can be more or less bent and its edges more or less curved. As a result, the triangular shape might be less obvious and the base looks more like a shell. The base is always clearly demarcated from the neighbouring lobes either by a circular sulcus (the circular sulcus of the insula (“rigole de l’insula” of Broca)) or by a delta curved sulci (the marginal sulci of the insula (sulci insulae marginalis of Schnopfhagen) that are superior [ms], anterior [ma] and posterior [mp]. The central (main) sulcus of the insula (sulcus insularis; main sulcus of the insula of Schnopfhagen) [i] divides the convexity of the insula into two unequal parts. The lobe of the insula [I] usually is demarcated by three to five radiating sulci laid out in form of fan with the ends often split into two secondary sulci. All of these sulci start from the truncated pole of the insula [I]. This truncated pole is shaped like a ridge that is oriented parallel to the superior branch of the circular sulcus (marginal superior sulcus). According to Schnopfhagen, one may distinguish two parts in the lobule of the insula. The first one, anterior, the short gyrus of the insula [la], that is the most extended and belongs to the frontal lobe. The second one, posterior gyrus (gyrus insulae posterior), that belongs to the temporal lobe.
Gyri insulae; classis gyrorum insularum
Gyrus de l’insula
Giros de la insula
THA : 6031
Dejerine : (p279-283)
The central (main) sulcus of the insula (sulcus insularis; main sulcus of the insula of Schnopfhagen) [i] divides the convexity of the insula into two unequal parts. According to Schnopfhagen one may distinguish two parts in the insula. The first one, anterior, the short gyrus of the insula [la], that is the most extended and belongs to the frontal lobe. The second one, posterior, (gyrus insulae posterior) that belongs to the temporal lobe.
Gyri breves insulae ; classis gyrorum brevium insularum
Gyrus courts de l'insula [Ia]
Giros cortos de la insula
THA : 6033
Dejerine : (p279-283) circonvolution antérieure de l’insula; plis antérieur et moyen de Broca
The anterior region of the insula [la], triangular in shape and more extended than the posterior ones, displays a set of gyri termed the first three gyri of the insula or the short gyri of the insula. Simple at its origin, that is to say near to the insular boundary where the set of short gyri of the insula presents a small smooth surface, this region is hidden under the pole of the temporal lobe and is hardly half a centimetre wide. The set of short gyri of the insula projects superiorly and laterally and gets progressively wider. The set of short gyri of the insula splits into two or three gyri that spread in form of a fan on the convexity of the insula. The set of short gyri of the insula ends with a large base at the level of the superior part of the circular sulcus (superior marginal sulcus). The set of short gyri of the insula extends between the anterior marginal sulcus [ma] (the anterior part of the circular sulcus) and the central (or main) sulcus of the insula [i]. The set of short gyri of the insula is split by two to four short, and shallow, gyri that usually never reach the pole of the insula nor the superior marginal sulcus (superior part of the circular sulcus). The gyri may sometimes be deep enough to appear as if they were originating from the central insular sulcus (main sulcus). The set of the short gyri of the insula corresponds to the middle and anterior gyri of Broca. The short anterior gyrus projects towards the triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus [F3(c)]. The middle gyrus extends towards the opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus (Op F). The posterior short gyrus extends towards the fronto-parietal operculum [OpR]. The base of the set of the short gyri of the insula includes all the space between the anterior ramus of the lateral sulcus [S(a)] and the parietal notch of the operculum [ipop].
Gyrus longus insulae
Gyrus long de l'insula [Ip]
Giro largo de la insula
THA : 6032
Dejerine : (p279-283) circonvolution postérieure de l’insula ; pli postérieur de Broca
The long gyrus, or posterior gyrus, is narrower but longer than the anterior region and extends obliquely superiorly and posteriorly. It originates from the uncus (U) in the form of a narrow sulcus bordering the posterior marginal sulcus (mp) (posterior part of the circular sulcus). It projects superiorly, increasing in width, and ends with a narrow termination at the posterior angle of the insula and below the operculum of the inferior parietal gyrus [Op P2]. Its width varies considerably and contributes at its maximum width to the formation of part of the insular pole. This gyrus is usually split by a longitudinal sulcus that sometimes projects into the central sulcus of the insula from which it appears to emerge.
Limen insulae ou Seuil de l'insula [SI]
Limen de la insula
THA : 6036
Dejerine : (p279-283) seuil de l’insula ; pli falciforme de Broca
The anterior and posterior parts of the circular sulcus do not meet inferiorly and remain separated by a space of about one centimetre that circumscribes the insula inferiorly and anteriorly and separates it from the anterior perforated substance. This is the insular threshold [SI]. The insular threshold is a flat curvilinear gyrus. It is a real fronto-temporal pli de passage that connects the temporal pole to the orbital part of the frontal lobe. It is bordered by the lateral olfactory stria that separates it from the base of the brain and, more specifically, from the anterior perforated substance. It is at the level of the insular threshold that the trunk of the lateral sulcus (lateral fossa) splits into three rami, an anterior ramus, an ascending ramus and a posterior ramus. It is also from this gyrus that the central sulcus (main) of the insula (sulcus insularis; main sulcus of the insula of Schnopfhagen) [i] takes origin. Tshe central sulcus also divides the convexity of the insula into two unequal parts.
Sulcus circularis insulae
Sillon circulaire de l’insula
Surco circular de la insula
THA ; 6035
Dejerine : (p279-283) sillon circulaire de l’insula ou sillons marginaux de l’insula
The base of the insula is always well-delineated from the neighbouring lobes, either by a circular sulcus (the circular sulcus of the insula) or by the marginal sulci of the insula (sulci insulae marginalis of Schnopfhagen) that, being delta-shaped, has superior [ms], anterior [ma] and posterior [mp] extensions.
Sulcus centralis insulae
Sillon central (principal) de l'insula ou sillon insulaire [i]
Surco central de la insula
THA : 6034
Dejerine : (p279-283) sillon central ; sillon principal de l’insula ; sulcus insularis
The short and long gyri are separated from each other by a constant sulcus, the central sulcus (main sulcus) of the insula (sulcus insularis [i] of Schnopfhagen). This sulcus begins at the inferior surface of the brain, at the level of the lateral fossa and of the limen insulae at the lateral corner of the anterior perforated substance. The sulcus crosses the limen insulae and the convexity of the insula, and projects superiorly and posteriorly. It terminates in the superior part of the circular sulcus (superior marginal sulcus), ahead of its posterior angle. This constant, and deep, sulcus is about 5mm deep at the level of the crest but disappears imperceptibly into the superior part of the circular sulcus. It is the first sulcus that appears on the surface of the insula and is present in a 30-centimetre embryo. It presents several variations. Its development might begin at both ends at the level of the anterior perforated substance and of the superior marginal sulcus. These two segments project towards the limen of the insula, drawing more closely to each other without fusing. However, the inferior section of the sulcus always separates the short gyri of the insula that belongs to the frontal lobe from the long gyrus that ends in the temporal lobe close to the uncus [U].
Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels )
Dejerine: (p262-263) lobe central d’Ecke
The central lobe is not recognised in the Terminologia Anatomica. The postcentral and the precentral gyri together form the central lobe (of Eckert). According to Dejerine, the fact that the central lobe is a distinctive lobe is justified because of the ascending and vertical direction of the precentral and postcentral gyri, the fact that they are closely linked, and because of the central lobe’s anatomical and physiological importance. Furthermore, recognition of the central lobe allows the disconnection of the two gyri from the lobes to which they belong. The precentral gyrus that belongs to the frontal lobe, forms the anterior lip of the central sulcus. Its anterior edge is the inserting point of the three frontal gyri. The postcentral gyrus that belongs to parietal lobe, forms the posterior lip of the central sulcus. Its posterior edge is the inserting point of the superior and inferior parietal gyri.
Dejerine : (p262) circonvolution frontale ascendante; circonvolution rolandique antérieure ou circonvolution centrale antérieure [Fa]
The precentral gyrus is located in front of the central sulcus and follows this sulcus’s obliquity and sinuosity. At the level of its superior genu and inferior genu, the central sulcus presents a notch that deeply divides the precentral gyrus. The precentral gyrus, that is very voluminous, is divided, in some rare cases, into two parts by the superior frontal sulcus that connects to the central sulcus. When this occurs, the superior part of the precentral gyrus is continuous with the superior frontal gyrus, whereas the inferior part receives the insertion of the middle and inferior gyri. In addition, the junction of the superior frontal sulcus with the central sulcus then is located within the concavity that separates the two geni of the central sulcus. The precentral gyrus arises from the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere, where it forms the largest part of the paracentral lobule called the anterior paracentral gyrus. From there, the gyrus runs obliquely, inferiorly and anteriorly, to course along the sinuosity of the central sulcus. The precentral gyrus ends above the posterior branch of the lateral sulcus; its superior and inferior ends merge with the parietal counterpart, the postcentral gyrus, by two plis de passage, the superior and inferior frontoparietal plis de passage. The inferior frontoparietal pli de passage corresponds to the Rolando operculum of Dejerine (alternatively termed the “central” operculum or gyrus subcentral i.e. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004).
Dejerine : (p264) circonvolution pariétale ascendante ; circonvolution rolandique postérieure ou circonvolution centrale postérieure [Pa]
The postcentral gyrus runs alongside the sinuosities of the posterior lip of the central sulcus. It is bounded behind by the postcentral gyrus that belongs, according to Dejerine, to the intraparietal sulcus. It continues downwards as an inferior frontoparietal anastomotic pli de passage that forms the posterior part of the inferior frontoparietal operculum (or rolando operculum or central operculum or gyrus subcentral i.e. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004 ).This posterior part of the inferior frontoparietal operculum, as defined by Dejerine, belongs to the parietal operculum as stated by the Terminologia Anatomica. It is the foremost part of the parietal operculum. The postcentral gyrus runs further superiorly, becoming a superior frontoparietal pli de passage called the paracentral lobule. The posterior part of the paracentral lobule is narrow, especially compared to the size of the anterior part that belongs to the precentral gyrus.
Also termed the central operculum or gyrus subcentral i.e. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004.
The Rolando, or central, operculum corresponds to the deep surface of the inferior frontoparietal pli de passage between the precentral gyrus and the postcentral gyrus. The inferior frontoparietal pli de passage is usually very superficial. It receives the inferior end of the central sulcus in its superior concavity. Its deep surface forms the “rolando or central” operculum (a term that does not exist in the Terminologia Anatomica) and covers the posterior gyri of the insula. Two notches of the lateral sulcus, the frontal notch and the parietal notch of the operculum (ifop and ipop), bound it anteriorly and posteriorly. The inferior frontopatrietal pli de passage is sometimes deeply buried into the lateral sulcus and cannot be readily seen and then only when one moves apart the lateral sulcus. Accordingly, it seems as if the central sulcus ‘flows’ directly into the lateral sulcus.
Dejerine: (p262) lobule paracentral [Parc]
The paracentral lobule is the superior frontoparietal pli de passage. It runs along the superior edge of the cerebral hemisphere and encroaches upon the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere. The anterior part or frontal part corresponds to the superior edge of the precentral gyrus. It is named the anterior paracentral gyrus in the Terminologia Anatomica. The paracentral lobule is wide, voluminuous, oval-shaped and forms, with virtually no other contributions, the whole of the paracentral lobule. The posterior parietal part that is narrow, corresponds to the superior edge of the postcentral gyrus. It is named the posterior paracentral gyrus in the Terminologia Anatomica.
Gyrus paracentral antérieur
Gyrus centralis anterior
Giro paracentral anterior
The anterior paracentral gyrus corresponds to the superior part of the precentral gyrus that is located on the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere. It is wide, voluminous, and oval-shaped. It forms virtually the whole of the paracentral lobule. Like the precentral gyrus, it belongs to the frontal lobe. However, according to Dejerine, it could belong to the central lobe.
Posterior paracentral gyrus
Gyrus paracentralis posterio
Gyrus paracentral postérieur
Giro paracentral posterior
The posterior paracentral gyrus is narrow and corresponds to the superior edge of the postcentral gyrus. It lies along the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere. As for the postcentral gyrus, it belongs to the parietal lobe. However, according to Dejerine, it could be considered as part of the central lobe.
Dejerine : (p248-250) Scissure de Rolando (R)
The central sulcus runs obliquely inferiorly and anteriorly. It begins above on the superior edge of the cerebral hemisphere, where it encroaches slightly the internal surface of the hemisphere. Subsequently, the central sulcus runs inferiorly and fanteriorly to terminate in the operculum (more or less close to the lateral sulcus). The central sulcus does not describe a straight line. It is sinuous, with two sinuosities that are convex anteriorly being constant and occupying the superior and inferior parts of the central sulcus. These are known as the superior genu and inferior genu. They are separated from each other anteriorly by a concave curve that is more or less accentuated and that corresponds to the insertion of the middle frontal gyrus at the precentral gyrus. The central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. It is bordered along its course by two voluminous and important gyri that run parallel to the sulcus and follow its sinuosities. They are known as the precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus. The precentral gyrus is anterior and belongs to the frontal lobe whereas the postcentral gyrus is posterior and belongs to the parietal lobe. The superior end of the central sulcus, that is located slightly behind the middle part of the cerebral hemisphere, is bounded by the superior frontoparietal pli de passage called the paracentral lobule [Parc]. This lobule connects the superior end of the precentral gyrus to the superior end of the postcentral gyrus at the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere. The inferior end, that is bounded by the inferior frontoparietal pli de passage, is called by Dejerine the Rolando operculum. The central operculum ends above the lateral sulcus about three centimeters behind its ascending or vertical ramus. The inferior frontoparietal pli de passage [OpR] is sometimes deeply buried within the lateral sulcus. Superficially, it appears that the central sulcus ‘flows’ directly into the lateral sulcus. It is usually only necessary to move aside the operculum to ascertain that the inferior frontoparietal pli de passage is constant. One or more transversal folds often notch the lower part of the central sulcus. These are genuine deep pli de passage between the precentral and the postcentral gyrus. In rare cases, these folds become superficial.
Dejerine: (p287) Incisure pré-ovalaire de Broca; sillon paracentral de Meynert [parc]
The paracentral sulcus corresponds to a notch that is more or less constant. The paracentral sulcus is located slightly in front of the bend of the cingulate sulcus or callosomarginal sulcus. The paracentral sulcus forms the anterior limit of the paracentral lobule.
Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels )
THA : 5991
Dejerine: (p251) lobe frontal
The frontal lobe is located in front of the central sulcus and above the lateral sulcus. The frontal lobe presents an external (lateral) surface that is referred to as the dorsal portion of the frontal lobe. It extends superiorly to the level of the superior margin of the cerebral hemisphere and projects further onto the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere where it forms the medial frontal gyrus. The frontal lobe curves anteriorly on the inferior surface of the cerebral hemisphere to form the orbital region of the frontal lobe. The lateral surface of the frontal lobe is divided into four gyri by three sulci, the precentral sulcus that is divided into a superior part and an inferior part, the superior frontal sulcus, and the inferior frontal sulcus. Among the four gyri, the precentral gyrus runs obliquely superiorly and posteriorly and is parallel to the central sulcus. The three frontal gyri, superior, middle and inferior, run postero-anteriorly and curve inferiorly at the level of the anterior margin of the frontal lobe to form the orbital region of the frontal lobe (or orbital gyri).
Dejerine: (p 258) Pôle frontal
The inferior frontal gyrus begins in the orbital region, at the posterior end of the olfactory sulcus, where it has a tapered-shaped root that is common to the superior frontal gyrus. Indeed, it constitutes the frontal pole (of Hervé).
Gyri orbitales, classis gyrorum orbitalium
Dejerine (p 256) Région orbitaire
The orbital region is the starting point of the three frontal gyri: superior, middle and inferior. This essentially triangular-shaped region forms the inferior surface (or orbital surface) of the frontal lobe and lies on the orbital plate of the frontal bone. Because of its location, it is referred to as the orbital lobule. The orbital lobule is bounded medially by the longitudinal fissure of the cerebral hemisphere. Anteriorly and laterally, it is bounded by the small frontomarginal sulcus (fm). Posteriorly, the orbital lobule forms the anterior margin of the lateral fossa. It terminates by forming a sharp edge that is bordered by the external olfactory stria at the level of the anterior perforated substance along the margin of the cerebral cortex.
Gyrus frontalis superior
Gyrus frontal supérieur
Giro frontal superior
Dejerine : (p 256) première circonvolution frontale, circonvolution frontale supérieure
The superior frontal gyrus has the most prominent curvature of the frontal gyri. It occupies the superior end of the cerebral hemisphere and borders the longitudinal fissure. The superior frontal gyrus forms the medial frontal gyrus on the medial surface of the brain. The superior frontal gyrus has a common origin with the inferior and middle gyri on the inferior surface of the frontal lobe. They form the orbital region (or inferior region) of the frontal lobe. The orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus occupies the internal portion of this region. It is separated from the straight gyrus that is antero-posterior oriented, by the olfactory sulcus where the olfactory peduncle is located, and the olfactory bulb. The gyrus rectus, or straight gyrus, is the straight part of the internal half of the orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus. The external section is wider and more convoluted and demarcates the internal limit of an irregular sulcus in an H-, K- or X-shaped formation that is referred to as the orbital sulcus or H-shaped notch. The three frontal gyri start at the level of the orbital region and have a common origin. They are narrow at their beginning but gradually increase in size the closer they are to the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. They display numerous gyri and merge with the precentral gyrus. The superior frontal gyrus forms a very wide, sinuous and thick gyrus that is often divided along its length by a tertiary sulcus. This tertiary sulcus is often shallow and broken up by numerous plis de passage. Usually, posteriorly the superior frontal gyrus terminates into the precentral gyrus by two inserting points located very close to the longitudinal fissure of the brain and separated from each other by the superior precentral gyrus.
Gyrus frontalis medialis
Gyrus frontal médial
Giro frontal medio (mediano?)
Dejerine : (p290) circonvolution frontale interne [mF1]
The medial frontal gyrus is in reality the internal surface of the superior frontal gyrus. It begins below the genu of the corpus callosum and the cingulate gyrus. It is usually divided by one or more sulci lying parallel to the cingulate sulcus, the inferior supra-orbital notches of Broca. The medial frontal gyrus extends superiorly and posteriorly, demarcating the longitudinal fissure of the cerebral hemisphere and forming the superior margin of the cerebral hemisphere. Posteriorly, it merges with the paracentral lobule. It is notched along its courses by numerous notches that are variable in depth and are either entirely separate or connected to cingulate sulcus. One of these notches is particularly deep and constant and is part of the supra-orbital sulcus of Broca.
Gyrus rectus (droit)
Dejerine: (p255) Gyrus rectus
The gyrus rectus corresponds to the internal segment of the orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus. It is referred to as the gyrus rectus because of its straight course. It is situated medial to the olfactory sulcus.
Gyrus frontalis medius
Gyrus frontal moyen
Giro frontal medio
Dejerine: (p256-257) seconde circonvolution frontale [F2]
The features of the middle frontal gyrus show great variability, in terms of origin, mass and termination. It appears more like a lobule than an actual gyrus. Moreover, its anterior part is often divided. The superior frontal sulcus demarcates it from the superior frontal gyrus whereas one or two plis de passage usually connect it to the superior frontal gyrus. The inferior frontal sulcus separates it from the inferior frontal gyrus. The middle frontal gyrus begins in the orbital region of the frontal lobe with two or three roots that curve around the frontomarginal sulcus. The middle frontal gyrus then runs parallel to the superior frontal gyrus. It fits into the superior half of the precentral gyrus, pushing it posteriorly. The notch subdividing this convolution is referred to as the sulcus of the middle frontal gyrus.
Gyrus frontalis inferior
Gyrus frontal inférieur
Giro frontal inferior
Dejerine: (p257-258) troisième circonvolution frontale ou circonvolution de Broca [F3]
The inferior frontal gyrus is located at the most inferior part of the frontal lobe. It exhibits numerous, and very accentuated, curvatures around the horizontal anterior ramus and the vertical ascending ramus of the lateral sulcus. The inferior frontal gyrus begins in the orbital region, next to the posterior end of the olfactory sulcus. It arises as a slender root common to the superior frontal gyrus and thus forms the frontal pole. It projects transversally and laterally from its beginning and constitutes the posterior limit of the orbital part of the frontal lobe. The inferior frontal gyrus runs posteriorly along the convexity of the cerebral hemisphere and fits into the inferior part of the precentral gyrus after it shows several curvatures shaped like a “M”. The termination of the gyrus is short and narrow and merges with the inferior part of the precentral gyrus. It is usually deeply buried into the lateral fossa and enfolds the inferior end of the precentral sulcus in its concavity. Indeed, it is sometimes so deeply buried in the depth of the lateral fossa that, at first sight, the precentral sulcus seems to continue directly into the lateral sulcus. The inferior frontal gyrus consists of three parts. The first part, an inferior orbital one, is located between the olfactory sulcus and the anterior horizontal ramus of the lateral sulcus; the second part, a medium triangular part, is located between the anterior horizontal ramus and the ascending vertical ramus of the lateral sulcus; the last part is the posterior part (or opercular part) located posterior to the vertical ascending ramus of the lateral sulcus.
THA : 5993
Dejerine : (p248)
The cerebral cortex between the anterior horizontal ramus and the posterior ramus is named the operculum. It forms the superior edge of the lateral fossa and serves as a ‘cap’ to a lobe buried into the lateral fissure, the insula or lobe of insula [I].
The Rolando operculum [OpR] is located between the frontal notch of the operculum of Brissaud
(p 247) and the parietal notch of the operculum of Broca (p 280). (p 250)
It corresponds to the inferior frontoparietal pli de passage or “Rolando operculum of Brissaud”. It might either course superficially on the lateral surface or be deeply buried into the lateral fossa. In the latter case, one must lift the operculum to see it and the central sulcus appears as if it joins directly with the lateral sulcus (p 280). Dejerine: (p 259) The inferior margin and inferior surface of the inferior frontal gyrus form the anterior part of the superior lip of the lateral sulcus (lateral fossa). They overlap the lobe of the insula and are closely linked with them. The deep side of the triangular-shaped part and the region adjacent to the orbital part overlap the anterior surface of the insula. They are demarcated from it by a deep vertical sulcus, the anterior marginal sulcus of the insula (or anterior part of the circular sulcus of the insula). The opercular part overlaps the superior part of the anterior insula (la). It is separated from it by an anteroposterior sulcus, the superior marginal sulcus of the insula (or superior part of the circular sulcus of the insula).
Dejerine: (p 259) pied ou partie operculaire [OpF3]
The opercular part extends with the triangular part to create a narrow, and stretched, fold that sometimes gets thinner, sometimes wider. It forms a small lobule with essentially a quadrangular shape. Its surface displays one or more dimples (= fossette). This lobule is sometimes split and follows an extended, and curved, route around a vertical notch that originates either from the lateral sulcus or from the inferior frontal sulcus. The lobule sends in general a pli de passage to the middle frontal gyrus that can be superficial but, more often, deep. The opercular part runs thereafter downwards and follows a route parallel to the precentral gyrus [Fa]. It describes a concave curve that envelopes the lower end of the inferior precentral sulcus and separates it from the lateral sulcus. At the end of its course it merges with the lower end of the precentral gyrus through a narrow, thin, short, and often deep, sulcus.
Dejerine: (p258) partie orbitaire
The orbital part is thin at both of its ends and wide in its middle where it extends anteriorly up to the transverse branch of the orbital sulcus (H-shaped notch) forming the “desert olfactif de Broca” (olfactory desert of Broca). It turns posteriorly and follows the convex surface of the cerebral hemisphere. It forms an anterior concave curve at its anterior end that demarcates inferiorly the horizontal anterior ramus of the lateral sulcus and encompasses the external end of the frontomarginal sulcus. The lateral olfactory stria follows the posterior limit of the orbital part. The internal extremity of the opercular part merges with the external part of the orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus and forms the frontal pole. Its external end continues with the triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Usually, it sends to the middle frontal gyrus a pli de passage that demarcates anteriorly the inferior frontal sulcus.
Dejerine: (p259) cap ou partie triangulaire
The triangular part between the two rami, horizontal anterior and vertical ascending, of the lateral sulcus has a very characteristic feature because of its shape and its consistency. Its apex, projects into the lateral fossa whereas its base is often split by a deep notch that originates from the inferior frontal sulcus (the notch of the triangular part). Either one of the branch of this base projects a superficial pli de passage to the middle frontal gyrus that breaks off the continuity of the inferior frontal sulcus.
Dejerine: (p252) sillons précentraux supérieur et inférieur; Union des sillons précentraux supérieur et inférieur
The precentral sulcus demarcates anteriorly the precentral gyrus. It begins inferiorly in the angle formed by the vertical ascending and posterior branch of the lateral sulcus. It is always split by, a more or less, thin pli de passage that is sometimes deeply buried in the lateral sulcus. This fold is a pli de passage of the inferior frontal gyrus into the precentral gyrus. The precentral sulcus projects obliquely, superiorly and posteriorly, parallel to the central sulcus. However, it almost never reaches the longitudinal cerebral fissure. In most cases, it is terminated by numerous plis de passage that are either superficial or deep. The main plis de passage are made those of the inferior and superior frontal gyri. When these two plis de passage are deep, the precentral sulcus extends from the area of the lateral sulcus to the longitudinal cerebral fissure. Viewed superficially, the precentral sulcus might be mistaken for the central sulcus as it follows the same direction. The plis de passage are more often superficial, in which case the precentral sulcus splits into an inferior segment and a superior segment. The inferior precentral sulcus, the longer and most important, receives usually the inferior frontal sulcus and the sulcus of the second frontal gyrus. When the inferior frontal gyrus fits into the precentral gyrus through two superficial plis de passage, the inferior precentral sulcus is reduced to a short, isolated notch. The superior precentral sulcus is much smaller than the inferior sulcus and receives the superior frontal sulcus. To the eye, it looks as if it were a notch in the superior frontal gyrus. However, the superior frontal sulcus sometimes is predominant and it might then reach in length the inferior precentral sulcus and even surpass in size the inferior precentral sulcus and hence compensate for it.
Sulcus frontalis superior
Sillon frontal supérieur
Surco frontal superior
Dejerine : (p253-254) Premier sillon frontal (Broca); sulcus frontalis superior (Ecker, Pansch)
The superior frontal sulcus is an antero-posteriorly oriented sulcus that separates the superior frontal gyrus from the middle frontal gyrus. It courses from back to front from the superior precentral sulcus up to the anterior end of the frontal lobe. It begins posteriorly between the two segments of the precentral sulcus and is usually separated from them by the plis de passage of the superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. Its origin may vary and is irregular. The superior frontal sulcus may sometimes form one segment or another of the precentral sulcus. It might locate more posteriorly the inferior precentral gyrus and notch it more or less deeply behind the inferior precentral sulcus. It may occasionally originate from the central sulcus and divides completely the precentral gyrus. The superior frontal sulcus may also be reduced to a few notches. It is interrupted by two plis de passage, that link the superior frontal gyrus to the middle frontal gyrus. A third pli de passage usually demarcates it anteriorly from the frontomarginal sulcus of Wernicke.
Sulcus frontalis inferior
Sillon frontal inférieur
Surco frontal inferior
Dejerine : (p254-255) Deuxième sillon frontal, sulcus frontalis inferior untere Stirfurche (Ecker)
The inferior frontal sulcus arises from the inferior precentral sulcus at a right angle. It runs postero-anteriorly and separates the inferior frontal gyrus from the middle frontal gyrus. It is interrupted in its course by one or more plis de passage that connect the inferior and middle gyri. Anteriorly, an pli de passage separates it from the frontomarginal sulcus in which it sometimes ends.
Dejerine : (p257) sillon de la deuxième circonvolution frontale.
The notch dividing the middle frontal gyrus is referred to as the sulcus of the middle frontal gyrus.
Dejerine: (p256) Sillon olfactif
The olfactory sulcus is a straight sulcus that is antero-posteriorly oriented and that accommodates the peduncle and the olfactory bulb. It divides the orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus that occupies the internal portion of the orbital part.
Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels )
Lobulus parietalis superior
THA : 6008
Dejerine : (p264) sillon interpariétal
The intraparietal sulcus is located on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. It separates the parietal lobe into a superior parietal lobule and an inferior parietal lobule. According to the classical definition, it includes the postcentral ulcus. According to Dejerine, the intraparietal sulcus begins behind the postero-inferior part of the postcentral gyrus, above the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. At its beginning, it is oriented superiorly and posteriorly, parallel to the postcentral gyrus, running along its posterior edge. Thereafter, it displays a marked curvature, concave on its inferior side. It passes beyond the limits of the parietal lobe and into the occipital lobe where it merges with the inter-occipital sulcus. Two ramifications originate from its concavity, an ascending ramus, the transverse parietal sulcus (Brissaud), and a descending branch, the intermediate sulcus of Jensen. The intermediate sulcus of Jensen divides the inferior parietal gyrus into the supramarginal gyrus and the angular gyrus.
Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels )
Does not exist according to Dejerine but would belong to the temporal operculumPlan polaireDoes not exist according to Dejerine but would belong to the temporal operculum
Gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis
Gyrus occipito-temporal latéral
Giro occipitotemporal lateral
Dejerine: (p292; 295) lobule fusiforme première circonvolution temporo-occipital (Charcot, Pozzi); Gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis (Pansch, Ecker) [Fus]
According to Dejerine, the fusiform gyrus is part of the occipital and temporal lobe; it is the only one that deserves the right to be called occipito-temporal gyrus. It is described by Dejerine with the occipital lobe and called fusiform gyrus.
Sulcus temporalis superior (Ecker)
Sillon temporal supérieur
Surco temporal superior
Dejerine (P 275) sillon parallèle, premier sillon temporal (Broca), or sulcus temporalis superior (Ecker) [t1]
The superior temporal sulcus is constant and starting from the anterior part of the temporal lobe; its course is posterior and parallel to the posterior ramus of lateral sulcus. It forms the axis of the angular gyrus. It presents numerous variations. At the base of the angular gyrus it might sometimes be split into a superior branch that forms the axis of the angular gyrus and an inferior branch forming the anterior occipital sulcus of Wernicke. It separates the middle temporal gyrus from the superior temporal gyrus.
Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels )
Dejerine : Sillon pré-occipital de Meynert; [ipo]
The preoccipital notch of Meynert sometimes forms a real sulcus, the preoccipital sulcus of Meynert.
THA : 5990
Dejerine : (p270) Incisure pré-occipitale, sillon pré-occipital; [ipo]
The lateral surface of the occipital lobe is separated inferiorly by a notch the preoccipital notch of Meynert. On its lateral surface, it sometimes forms the preoccipital sulcus of Meynert.
THA : 5989
Dejerine: (p 284) Scissure pariéto-occipitale. [po]
The parieto-occipital sulcus consists of two parts, an external part representing the external perpendicular sulcus of Gratiolet that forms a simple notch on the lateral surface of the hemisphere, and an internal part constituting the actual parieto-occipital sulcus (or internal perpendicular sulcus of Gratiolet). On the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere, the internal part of the parieto-occipital sulcus constitutes the anterior limit of the occipital lobe and separates the cuneus from the pre-cuneus and the posterior part of the limbic lobe. Running obliquely, it continues inferiorly and anteriorly to merge with the calcarine sulcus at a sharp angle. It cuts more or less deeply the narrow part of the limbic lobe named the isthmus of the cingulate gyrus located below the splenium of the corpus callosum.
THA : 6061
Dejerine : (p 285) Scissure calcarine (Broca) Son éperon supérieur ; Son éperon inférieur ; Branche commune aux scissures calcarine et pariétooccipitale. [K]
The calcarine sulcus is a horizontal and very deep fissure belonging to the occipital lobe. It merges with the parieto-occipital sulcus at an acute angle and together delimits a triangular shaped lobule, the cuneus. The calcarine sulcus extends from the occipital pole to the splenium of the corpus callosum and separates the cuneus from the lingual lobule. Generally, it begins very close to the occipital pole and has the shape of a double spur. This spur sometimes encroaches upon the lateral surface of the lobe. When the superior spur is missing, the calcarine sulcus is then reduced, at its origin, to the inferior spur. From there, it runs medially with varying degrees of pronounced twists to merge with the parieto-occipital sulcus above the cuneo-limbic pli de passage. The branch, common to the calcarine sulcus and parieto-occipital sulcus, runs obliquely inferiorly and notches more or less deeply the limbic lobe at the level of the isthmus of the cingulate gyrus. However, regardless of its appearance, it never reaches the hippocampal sulcus. The calcarine sulcus depresses the medial wall of the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle, forming the calcarine spur.
Dejerine : (p 271-272) Sillon inter-occipital ; Premier sillon occipital ; Sillon occipital supérieur
The Inter-occipital sulcus is nothing other than the continuation of the intraparietal sulcus within the occipital lobe. It extends the curved route of the intraparietal sulcus and ends sometimes at the level of the second occipital sulcus or tranverse occipital sulcus. However, it generally runs beyond this sulcus, crossing it at right angle to form with it a star-shaped sulcus that stretches out up to the extremity of the occipital lobe. It divides the occipital lobe into two parts, the superior and posterior part corresponding to the first occipital gyrus or the lateral surface of the cuneus and the anterior and inferior part comprising the second and third occipital gyri and the connections of these two gyri with the angular gyrus.
Sulcus occipitalis transversus
Sillon occipital transverse
Surco occipital transverso
THA : 6016
Dejerine : (p 272) Sillon occipital transverse ; deuxième sillon occipital; [o2]
The transverse occipital sulcus is an antero-posterior sulcus separating the first and the second occipital gyri. It crosses the inter-occipital sulcus often at right angle and goes in the direction of the horizontal part of the superior temporal sulcus.
Dejerine: (p 272) Troisième sillon occipital; sillon occipital moyen (Schwalbe); sillon occipital
inférieur (Ecker); [o3]
The third occipital sulcus, or middle occipital sulcus (Schwalbe) or inferior occipital sulcus (Ecker), is a small superficial antero-posterior sulcus that separates the second occipital gyrus from the third one. It goes anteriorly towards the inferior temporal sulcus and the occipitotemporal sulcus and constitutes, in most cases, the inferior margin of the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. In some cases, it is part of the inferior surface of the hemisphere.
Sillon du cunéus
Dejerine : (p 292) sillon du cunéus; [c]
The Sulcus of the cuneus is the deepest among the superficial sulci that irregularly divide the surface of the cuneus. It is generally anteroposteriorly oriented.
Sillon du gyrus lingual
Dejerine : (p 293-94) Sillon du lobule lingual; [lg]
The sulcus of the lingual gyrus is a constant and more or less sinuous sulcus in an anteroposterior direction. It divides the lingual gyrus into a superior gyrus and an inferior gyrus. This sulcus is located at the junction of the internal surface and the inferior surface of the cerebral hemisphere. Parallel to the calcarine sulcus, it is deep posteriorly and joins the collateral sulcus anteriorly immediately below the retrolimbic pli e passage of Broca. This sulcus sometimes splits the lingual gyrus into two retrolimbic plis de passage, a superior one being generally superficial and an inferior one deep. In this case, the lingual gyrus is linked to the limbic lobe by two plis de passage.
THA : 6065
Dejerine: (p 271) Troisième sillon temporal (Broca); Première scissure temporo-occipitale (Pansch); Sulcus temporalis inferior sive tertius (Ecker); [t3]
The occipitotemporal sulcus corresponds for Dejerine to the inferior temporal sulcus or third temporal sulcus of Broca. On the inferior surface of the temporal lobe, it separates the three temporal gyri on the lateral surface from the fusiform gyrus or lateral temporo-occipital gyrus. It does not extend as far as the temporal pole and ends at the pre-occipital notch (of Schwalbe). There is sometimes a pli de passage linking the inferior temporal gyrus to the occipital lobe and separating the occipitotemporal sulcus from the preoccipital notch.
Dejerine: (P 289) scissure collatérale, scissure occipito-temporale (p 125); [ot]
Constant and deep, the collateral sulcus begins posteriorly at the occipital pole and ends towards the anterior end of the temporal lobe without reaching the temporal pole. The posterior half of the collateral sulcus is parallel to the calcarine sulcus and separates the lingual lobule from the fusiform gyrus (lateral occipitotemporal gyrus). The second half of the collateral sulcus separates the parahippocampal gyrus from the fusiform gyrus (lateral occipitotemporal gyrus). It sometimes broke off by the temporo-limbic pli de passage that connects the limbic lobe to the fusiform gyrus.
Surco semi lunar
THA : 6015
Dejerine: (p 271) Fente simienne; simian sulcus - Lunate sulcus
For apes such as the chimpanzee or the orang-outang, the perpendicular external sulcus (that is the continuation of the parieto-occipital sulcus on the lateral surface of the brain) merges with the anterior occipital sulcus, runs along the whole lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere and separates clearly the occipital lobe from the parietal and temporal lobe. It is therefore the reason why the external perpendicular sulcus is named the simian sulcus.
Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels )
Dejerine: (P126-127, 296) Grand lobe limbique de Broca. Rhinencephalon de Turner.
The limbic lobe consists of two arcs, superior and inferior arcs, that converge anteriorly to become a part of the olfactory lobe. The superior (or frontoparietal) arc runs along the convex surface of the corpus callosum for its entire extent. The superior arc is referred to as the cingulate gyrus. The inferior arc curves around the cerebral peduncle and forms the parahippocampal gyrus. Rostrally, the superior and inferior arcs are completed by the olfactory lobe. The olfactory striae, lateral stria and medial stria, curve around the anterior perforated substance. The medial stria merges with the cingulate gyrus, whereas the lateral stria projects into the parahippocampal gyrus. Laterally, posteriorly and inferiorly, the limbic lobe is bounded by the limbic fissure. In humans, the limbic fissure differentiates into superiorly the cingulate sulcus (or callosomarginal sulcus), and the subparietal sulcus, posteriorly the common branch of the calcarine sulcus and of the parieto-occipital sulcus and inferiorly the collateral sulcus. Internally, the limbic lobe is bounded by the sulcus of the corpus callosum and by the hippocampal sulcus. When considering the “Great limbic lobe of Broca”, Dejerine includes five elements:
1. The cingulate gyrus or first limbic gyrus
2. The parahippocampal gyrus or second limbic gyrus
3. The hippocampal sulcus and the sulcus of the corpus callosum
4. The dentate gyrus or intralimbic gyrus
5. The olfactory lobe (i.e. the olfactory structures).
Ramus marginalis; sulcus marginalis
Rameau marginal, sillon marginal
Ramo marginal surco marginal
Dejerine (p287) calloso-marginal sulcus
The marginal sulcus is the peripheral part of the cingulate sulcus and is located at the posterior part of the corpus callosum where the cingulate sulcus bends at an obtuse angle. The marginal sulcus is superiorly and posteriorly oriented towards the superior margin of the cerebral hemisphere.
Dejerine (p289) Scissure sous-pariétale
The subparietal sulcus and the cingulate sulcus together form the outer limit of the fronto-parietal section (cingulate gyrus) of Broca’s limbic lobe. These sulci separate Broca’s limbic lobe from the parietal lobe posteriorly and from the frontal lobe anteriorly.
Sulcus corporis callosi
Sillon du corps calleux
Surco del cuerpo calloso
Dejerine (p301) sinus du corps calleux; ventricule du corps calleux (Sabatier) (scc)
The sulcus of the corpus callosum runs alongside the corpus callosum. It curves around the genu and the rostrum continuing further onto the surface of the brain within the prima notch of His (ip). The anterior cerebral artery runs within the sulcus of the corpus callosum and the sulcus separates the deep surface of the cingulate gyrus from the superior surface of the corpus callosum, the longitudinal stria (NL) and the taenia tecta (tec).
Surco del hipocampo
Dejerine (p300) Sillon de l’hippocampe (h)
The sulcus of the hippocampus that is related developmentally to the “scissure ammonique” of the fetus is continuous with the sulcus of the corpus callosum. The hippocampus sulcus is very deep in its anterior part. It usually presents at that level several four or five notches that form the digitations of Ammon’s horn. Located at its beginning between the uncus and the subiculum of Ammon’s horn, the hippocampus sulcus projects superiorly and posteriorly. It becomes shallower and bounds the deep surface of the subiculum and the subcallosum gyri separating the subiculum and the subcallosal gyri from the dentate gyrus. Along its path, the sulcus of the hippocampus presents numerous adjacent notches that cut deeply into the dentate gyrus to give the gyrus its particular appearance that has earned it its name. When reaching the level of the splenium of the corpus callosum, the sulcus of the hippocampus demarcates the subcallosum gyri and the isthmus of the limbic lobe from the fasciola cirenea. The sulcus of the hippocampus thereafter continues imperceptibly with the sulcus of the corpus callosum.
Dejerine (p301) sillon fimbrio-godronné
The fimbriodentate sulcus is a narrow, shallow sulcus that separates the dentate gyrus from the fimbria of the hippocampus.
Dejerine: (p289) scissure collatérale
Constant and deep, the collateral sulcus begins posteriorly at the occipital pole and ends towards the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe without reaching the temporal pole. The posterior half of the collateral sulcus lies parallel to the calcarine sulcus and separates the lingual gyrus from the fusiform gyrus or lateral occipitotemporal gyrus. The anterior half of the collateral sulcus separates the parahippocampal gyrus from the fusiform gyrus (lateral occipitotemporal gyrus). The collateral sulcus is sometimes interrupted by the temporolimbic “pli de passage” that connects the limbic lobe to the fusiform gyrus.
Dejerine (p298) incisures temporale de Schwalbe; sillon pre-uncique de Brissaud
Anteriorly, the temporal pole extends beyond the uncus to which it is invariably connected by a continuous pli de passage that is more or less deeply notched by the temporal notch of Schwalbe (or sillon pre-uncique of Brissaud). The term, rhinal sulcus, is not used in the Dejerine atlas.
The fissura prima of His is a cross-sectional sulcus that separates the anterior olfactory lobule from the posterior olfactory lobule. Situated behind the olfactory tubercle, the primary sulcus notches to a variable extent the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere. The fissura prima of His extends to the edge of the convolution of the orbital surface of the frontal lobe. The term, fissura prima of His has not yet been recognised by the Terminologia Anatomica.
Dejerine (p109; 305)
A somewhat indistinct sulcus, referred to by Dejerine as the fissura serotina of His, limits the olfactory area of Broca anteriorly and separates it from the cingulate gyrus.
The olfactory area of Broca is bounded inferiorly by the fissura serotina of His. This fissura serotina of His is often concealed by a pli de passage. At that level, however, there is always a light depression occupied by the anterior cerebral artery when the anterior cerebral artery goes out of the anterior perforated substance (p305). This sulcus is not yet recognised by the Terminologia Anatomica.
01- Inferior view of the cerebral hemispheres
02- Lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere
03- Lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere with the Insula
04- Medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere
05- Superior view of the cerebral hemispheres
06- Horizontal slice of the cerebral hemisphere
Tissot’s histological Frontal slice (637) and Dejerine’s abbreviations