Details about the Original
Dejerine Atlas

Description Plans & Chapters

Description

This contemporary, online and digital Dejerine’s Atlas consists of various chapters that were listed on pages 310 to 311 in the original Dejerine’s atlas, together with an account of the abbreviations used in the drawings provided by H. Gillet.

Dejerine started by describing the lateral fossa (01) then the insula (02) and the central lobe (03) corresponding to the pre‐central and the post‐ central gyri (the first belonging to the frontal lobe, the second to the parietal lobe). Dejerine continued with the frontal (04), parietal (05), temporal (06), and occipital (07) lobes. Dejerine finished by providing an account of the limbic lobe (08) that corresponds to the description of the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus and the hippocampus.

Each chapter presents a translation of the terms listed by Dejerine on pages 310 and 311 that have been adapted to today’s terminology, except when it is not possible to find equivalent terms in the Terminologia Anatomica (TA: Terminologia anatomica, 1998, Georg Thieme Verlag). In such cases, a simple translation of Dejerine’s terminology is used.

Each anatomical term is defined in accordance with Dejerine’s description in his atlas. The definition of a term starts with the anatomical term found in the Terminologia Anatomica in English, Latin, French, and Spanish. In addition, we provide the numerical classifications found within both the Terminologia Anatomica and the Terminologia Humana Anatomica (THA Fribourg. unifr.ch/ifaa ).

Based on the descriptions within the Dejerine atlas, the cytoarchitectural boundaries of the cortical mantle have been manually delineated in 3D on the 400μm resolution BigBrain (Amuntz et al., 2013), using MRICron [http:/www.mricro.com]. A 3D reconstruction of the drawings using Vizua 3D has allowed us to add labels and to offer descriptions of the anatomical terms.

The Dejerines (p244-245) were very careful about describing the links between two gyri of two different lobes, calling such links plis de passage (literally crossing fold or gyri). On occasions such gyri have also been called annectant gyri (Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004). We decided to keep the term plis de passage as it is used in numerous papers otherwise written in English (i.e. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004).

Below is listed the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations and, when available, Gillet’s drawings (p310-311)

Plans

Lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere
Gillet’s Drawing and Dejerine’s abbreviations
Medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere with the Insula
Gillet’s Drawing and Dejerine’s abbreviations

List of the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations and Gillet’s Drawings

  1. Lateral cerebral fossa or lateral sulcus [S] (p310)
    • Anterior ramus [S(a)]
    • Vertical ramus [S(v)]
    • Posterior ramus [S(p)]
    • Superior notch of the posterior ramus [S’(p)] Inferior notch of the posterior ramus [S’’(p)]
    • Notches of the posterior ramus
    • Frontal notch of the operculum [ifop] Parietal notch of the operculum [ipop] Temporal notch of the operculum [itop]
  2. Insula ; Insular lobe [I]
    • Gyri
      1. Short gyri of insula [Ia]
      2. Long gyri of insula [Ip]
      3. Limen Insulae ; Insular threshold [SI]
    • Sulci
      1. Circular sulcus of Insula, anterior part [ma]
      2. Circular sulcus of Insula, posterior part [mp]
      3. Circular sulcus of Insula, superior part [ms]
      4. Central sulcus of insula [i]
  3. Central lobe [C]
    • Gyri
      1. Precentral gyrus [Fa]
      2. Postcentral gyrus [Pa]
      3. Rolandic operculum [OpR]
      4. Paracentral lobule [Parc]
    • Sulci
      1. Central sulcus [R]
      2. Paracentral sulcus [parc]
  4. Frontal lobe (frontal pole) [F]
    • Gyri
      1. Superior frontal gyrus [F1]
        • Medial part median frontal gyrus [mF1]
        • Orbital part [oF1]
        • Straight gyrus [oF19Gr)]
      2. Middle frontal gyrus [F2]
        • Orbital part [oF2]
      3. Inferior frontal gyrus [F3]
        • Frontal operculum [OpF3]
        • Opercular part [pF3]
        • Triangular part [F3(c)]
        • Orbital part [oF3]
    • Sulci
      1. Superior precentral sulcus [prs]
      2. Inferior precentral sulcus [pri]
        • Precentral sulcus union of superior and inferior precentral sulci [pr]
      3. Superior frontal sulcus [f1]
        • Its notches [f1’]
      4. Inferior frontal sulcus [f2]
        • Its notches [f2’]
        • Notch of the triangular part [ic]
      5. Sulcus of the middle frontal gyrus [f’2]
      6. Orbital sulci (Incisure en H) [f3]
      7. Olfactory sulcus [f4]
      8. Sillon fronto‐marginal [fm]
      9. Sillon orbitaire externe [soe]
      10. Sillon sus‐orbitaire [so] ; Deuxième sillon sus‐orbitaire [so’]
  5. Parietal lobe [P]
    • Gyri
      1. Superior parietal gyrus [P1]
        • Medial part or Precuneus [PrC]
        • First vertical fold of Gromier [πG1]
        • Second vertical fold of Gromier [πG2]
      2. Inferior parietal gyrus [P2]
        • Operculum [OpP2]
        • Supramarginal gyrus [Gsm]
        • Angular gyrus [Pc]
    • Sulci
      1. Post‐cental sulcus [por]
      2. Intraparietal sulcus [ip]
        • Its notches [ip’]
        • Notch of Jensen [j]
      3. Transverse parietal sulcus [pt]
  6. Temporal lobe (temporal pole)
    • Gyri
      1. Superior temporal gyrus [T1]
      2. Middle temporal gyrus [T2]
      3. Inferior temporal gyrus [T3]
      4. Retro‐insular region ; transverse temporal gyrus ; deep temporal gyrus [Tp]
    • Sulci
      1. Superior temporal sulcus [t1]
        • Vertical branches
      2. Inferior temporal sulcus [t2]
      3. Occipito‐temporal sulcus [t3]
        • pre‐occipital notch. [ipo]
      4. Deep temporal sulcus [tp]
      5. Temporal notch. [it]
      6. Collateral sulcus. [ot]
  1. Occipital lobe (occipital pole) [O]
    • Gyri
      1. First occipital gyrus [O1]
      2. Internal portion of the first occipital gyrus or cuneus. [C]
        • Its internal and superiorpariéto‐occipital crossing fold (“pli de passage” or annectant gyrus) [πpoi]
      3. Second occipital gyrus [O2]
      4. Third occipital gyrus [O3]
      5. Descending occipital gyrus [D]
      6. Lingual gyrus [Lg]
        • Cuneo‐lingual crossing folds (“plis de passage” or annectant gyri) [πclg]
      7. Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus (fusiform gyrus) [Fus]
    • Sulci
      1. Anterior occipital sulcus [oa]
      2. Pre‐occipital sulcus (preoccipital notch) [ipo]
      3. Parieto‐occipital sulcus [po]
      4. Calcarine sulcus [K]
        • Superior spur [K’]
        • Inferior spur [K’’]
        • Calcarine and parietooccipital sulci common branch [K+po]
      5. Inter‐occipital sulcus [io]
      6. Transverse occipital sulcus [o2]
      7. Third occipital sulcus [03]
      8. Sulcus of the cuneus [c]
      9. Sulcus of the lingual gyrus [lg]
      10. Collateral sulcus [ot]
      11. Lunate sulcus
  2. Great limbic lobe of Broca (p311) [L]
    • Gyri
      1. Cingulate gyrus [L1]
        • Isthmus of cingulate gyrus [L(i)]
        • Carrefour olfactif de Broca [CB]
      2. Parahippocampal gyrus [H(L2)]
        • Subcallosal gyrus or area [Csc]
        • Uncus [U]
      3. Crossing folds (“plis de passage” or annectant gyri)
        • Fronto‐limbic crossing fold [πfl]
        • Anterior parieto‐limbic crossing fold [πpla]
        • Posterior parieto‐limbic crossing fold [πplp]
        • Cuneo‐limbic crossing fold [πcl]
        • Retro‐limbic crossing fold [πrl]
        • Temporo‐limbic crossing fold [πtl]
      4. Dentate gyrus [Cg]
        • Bandelette de Giacomini [BG]
        • Fasciolar gyrus [Fc]
        • Taenia tecta [tec]
        • Indusium griseum [NL]
        • Circonvolution géniculée [Cgn]
        • Diagonal band (of Broca) [bd]
      5. Olfactory lobe
        • Anterior olfactory lobule [Lola]
          • Olfactory bulb [Bol]
          • Olfactory peduncle [Pol]
          • Olfactory tubercle [Tol]
          • Olfactory striae lateral stria [Role]
          • Olfactory striae medial stria [Roli]
          • Carrefour olfactif de Broca [CB]
        • Posterior olfactory lobule [Lolp]
          • Anterior perforated substance [Epa; Spa]
          • Diagonal band [bd]
    • Sulci
      1. Cingulate sulcus or calloso‐marginal sulcus [cm]
        • Marginal sulcus [cm]
      2. Subparietal sulcus [sp]
      3. Sillon intra‐limbique. [l]
      4. Sulcus of corpus callosum [scc]
      5. Hippocampal sulcus [h]
      6. Fimbriodentate sulcus [fg]
      7. Incisura prima [fp]
      8. Fissura serotina (literal English translation: ‘thick fissure’) [fs]
  3. Gillet’s drawing and Dejerine’s abbreviations
    • (see example below)

  4. References
      1. Dejerine J., Dejerine-Klumpke A. (1895) Anatomie des centres nerveux, tome
        • Rueff et Cie, Paris
      2. Amunts K.et al. BigBrain: An Ultrahigh--‐ResoluCon 3D Human Brain Model. (2013) Science 340, 1472
      3. Terminologia Anatomica: Internationnal Anatomical Terminology. (1999) New York:Thieme Medical Publishers
      4. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS. Pli de Passage Fronto-Pariétal Moyen of Broca Separates the Motor Homunculus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:809–812, (2004)
  5. Acknowledgement
    • Musée Dupyutren and Fondation Dejerine; Students who participated in the project and all the participants.

01- LATERAL CEREBRAL FOSSA and LATERAL SULCUS (V1-2018)

  1. List of the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations [] and Gillet’s Drawings (p310-311).

    Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels [])

  2. Lateral cerebral fossa or lateral sulcus [S]
    1. Anterior ramus [S(a)]
    2. Ascending ramus [S(v)]
      1. Superior notch of the posterior ramus [S’(p)]
      2. Inferior notch of the posterior ramus [S’’(p)]
      3. Notches of the posterior ramus
    3. Posterior ramus [S(p)]
    4. Frontal notch of the operculum [ifop]
    5. Parietal notch of the operculum [ipop]
    6. Temporal notch of the operculum [itop]
  3. Lateral cerebral fossa

    Fossa lateralis cerebri
    Fosse cérébrale latérale
    Fosa lateral cerebral
    A14.1.09.009
    THA:5978
    Dejerine: (p 105; 128-129) Fosse sylvienne
    The description of the lateral cerebral fossa is included in the chapter dedicated to the brain’s development. The lateral surface of the axial portion of the embryonic (anterior) brain constitutes the lateral fossa. Around the fourth week of embryonic life, the lateral fossa displays a slight depression that becomes increasingly deeper the more the cortex extends during the following weeks. At this stage, the lateral cerebral fossa forms the first rudiment of the lateral sulcus. Around the third month of embryonic life, the lateral cerebral fossa takes the shape of an arch that is vertically oriented. The anterior and posterior segments of that arch demarcate the lobe from the insula, whereas the olfactory lateral stria limits their lower extremity. At the beginning of the fourth month, the lateral cerebral fossa expands, becoming narrower and projecting obliquely superiorly and anteriorly. The oblique orientation is most probably linked to the development of the occipital lobe. The anterior segment curves further with the development of the fronto-parietal lobe that essentially takes the shape of an operculum during the fifth month. When expanding, the operculum extends more and more over the lateral cerebral fossa. When developing, the operculum gives rise to the anterior and superior branches of the lateral sulcus. The operculum extends over the lobe of the insula that developed at the level of the lateral cerebral fossa. The insula lies deeply buried, and thus hidden, in the depths of the lateral sulcus as a result of further development of the frontal lobe anteriorly, of the temporal lobe inferiorly, and of the parietal lobe superiorly.

  4. Lateral sulcus

    Sulcus lateralis
    Sillon latéral
    Surco lateral
    A14.1.09.104
    THA: 5986
    Dejerine : (p246-248) Scissure de Sylvius [S]. Grande scissure interlobaire (Chaussier). Fissure lateralis (Henle). Scissure de Sylvius (Broca). Fissure of Sylvius (Turner, Ferrier).
    The lateral sulcus becomes visible very early in the embryonic brain. Its development is closely linked to the development of the corpus striatum of the forebrain. Its first rudiments appear as early as the end of the first month of embryonic life, under a slight depression known as the lateral fossa. The lateral sulcus is the deepest of the interlobar sulci. It appears as a cleft that is obliquely oriented superiorly and posteriorly. It is deep and prominent, separates the frontal and parietal lobes, and is situated above from the temporal lobe. It begins on the inferior surface of the brain, on the lateral part of the anterior perforated substance that extends from the inside of the fissure in the human. However, it is the lateral olfactory stria that demarcates its anterior limit. The lateral sulcus runs first anteriorly and laterally before curving on the inferior surface of the brain where the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone protrude into it. In this very short part of its course, it demarcates the orbital part of the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe and is referred to as the trunk of the lateral sulcus. When reaching the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, it projects posteriorly and runs obliquely superiorly. At the level of the short gyri of insula, it divides into anterior and posterior rami. In reality, the lateral sulcus divides into three rami, a horizontal anterior ramus [S(a)], a vertical ascending ramus [S(v)], parts of the anterior ramus, and a posterior ramus [S(p)]. The temporal and parietal lobes merge through plis de passage that are constant, either superficial or deep, at the level of the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. The superficial pli de passage is referred to as the supra-marginalis gyrus [Gsm]. The deep pli de passage that is often split into two or three folds, is buried within the lateral sulcus, posteriorly to the insula. It is referred to as the retro-insular region [Tp] (or transverse gyri in the Dejerine’s atlas) and is part of the temporal lobe.

  5. Anterior ramus

    Ramus anterior
    Rameau antérieur
    Ramo anterior
    A14.1.09.107
    THA : 5989
    Dejerine: (p246-248) Rameau horizontal antérieur.
    The anterior ramus that is much shorter, separates into an Y shaped formation with an anterior horizontal ramus [S(a)] and an ascending vertical ramus [S(v)]. These two rami, 2 to 3 centimetres in length, are deep and prominent and cut to its whole extent the superior margin of the lateral cerebral fossa. They sometimes arise directly from the lateral cerebral fossa, forming a “V” instead of a “Y” shaped formation. The anterior horizontal ramus [S(a)], the most significant and the most constant, runs along the same course as the posterior ramus and extends into the frontal lobe. It is very deep and occupies the whole depth of the inferior frontal gyrus [F3], demarcating the limit between the lateral surface and the orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus. The cerebral cortex between the anterior horizontal ramus and the posterior ramus is referred to as the operculum. It forms the superior margin of the lateral cerebral fossa and covers a lobe located in the depth of the lateral sulcus, the insula of Reil or insular lobe.

  6. Ascending ramus

    Ramus ascendens
    Rameau ascendant
    Ramo ascendente
    A14.1.09.106
    THA : 5988
    Dejerine : (p246-248) rameau ascendant vertical [S(v)]
    The vertical ascending ramus separates from the anterior horizontal ramus at a more or less obtuse angle and projects superiorly and anteriorly into the posterior section of the inferior frontal gyrus [F3]. These two rami, anterior ramus and vertical ramus, are notable in humans because of their constancy. They delimit a small triangular shaped lobule with a tip bulging in the lateral cerebral fossa. Broca refers to this formation as the “cape of the inferior frontal gyrus or triangular part”.

  7. Posterior ramus

    Ramus posterior
    Rameau postérieur
    Ramo posterior
    A14.1.09.105
    THA: 5987
    Dejerine: (p246-248) Rameau postérieur; branche postérieure; grande branche.
    The posterior ramus [S(p)] of the lateral sulcus is the longest ramus. It runs along the main direction of the lateral cerebral fossa. It runs obliquely superiorly and posteriorly and separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe. After a course of 8 to 10 centimetres towards the middle part of the parietal lobe, it ends with a double spur that bounds anteriorly the supramarginal gyrus [Gsm]. The superior spur is often very short. It sometimes notches deeply into the inferior parietal gyrus. The inferior spur, that is most often very short and shallow, separates the superior temporal gyrus [T1] from the supramarginal gyrus [Gsm]. The superior margin of the posterior ramus of the lateral cerebral fossa shows, at the level of the parietal lobe, one, two and sometimes three deep notches referred to as the parietal notch(es) of Broca [ipop]. The frontal lobe sometimes displays a similar notch anteriorly to the inferior fronto-parietal pli de passage [OpR] (or subcentral gyrus, i.e. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004). It is referred to as the frontal notch of Brissaud [ifop].

  8. Frontal notch of the operculum [ifop]

    (See: Posterior ramus)

  9. Parietal notch of the operculum [ipop]

    (See: Posterior ramus)

  10. Temporal notch of the operculum [itop]

    (See: Posterior ramus)

02- INSULA, INSULAR LOBE (V1-2018)

  1. List of the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations [] and Gillet’s Drawings (p310-311).

    Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels [])

  2. Insula; Insular lobe [I]
      Gyri
      1. Short gyri of Insula [Ia]
      2. Long gyri of Insula [Ip]
      3. Limen Insulae; Insular threshold [SI]
      Sulci
      1. Circular sulcus of Insula, anterior part [ma]
      2. Circular sulcus of Insula, posterior part [mp]
      3. Circular sulcus of Insula, superior part [ms]
      4. Central sulcus of Insula [i]
  3. I nsula, insular lobe

    Insula; lobus insularis
    Lobe de l’insula; Insula
    Insula; lóbulo de la insula
    A14.1.09.149
    THA : 6030
    Dejerine : (p279-283) Lobe de l'insula [I], Lobule du corps strié, Insula de Reil
    Deeply buried in the depths of the lateral cerebral fossa, the insula is completely covered with the frontal, the parietal and the temporal lobes. It cannot be seen on the surface of the brain that is covered by the meninges. In order to see it one must move apart the edges of the lateral fossa. This little lobule has not always been so deeply buried. In the fetus, when the lateral sulcus is widely spread and forms the lateral fossa, the insular lobe, presents itself loosely on the lateral surface or convex surface of the anterior brain. It even constitutes the pivot around which the subsequent development of the vesicle takes place, having the frontal lobe anteriorly, the parietal lobe superiorly and the temporal lobe inferiorly. During their development, the three lobes cover the insula, the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe on a wider surface compared to the temporal lobe, all of them forming together a real operculum. The gyri of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes surrounding this lobule considered as a whole, are referred to by Foville as the enclosure of the insula. In adults, when one parts the edge of the lateral sulcus, the insula appears as a slightly conical protrusion. The tip (or pole) of the insula of Broca is oriented anteriorly and inferiorly, whereas its base is triangular in shape. The angles of this base can be more or less bent and its edges more or less curved. As a result, the triangular shape might be less obvious and the base looks more like a shell. The base is always clearly demarcated from the neighbouring lobes either by a circular sulcus (the circular sulcus of the insula (“rigole de l’insula” of Broca)) or by a delta curved sulci (the marginal sulci of the insula (sulci insulae marginalis of Schnopfhagen) that are superior [ms], anterior [ma] and posterior [mp]. The central (main) sulcus of the insula (sulcus insularis; main sulcus of the insula of Schnopfhagen) [i] divides the convexity of the insula into two unequal parts. The lobe of the insula [I] usually is demarcated by three to five radiating sulci laid out in form of fan with the ends often split into two secondary sulci. All of these sulci start from the truncated pole of the insula [I]. This truncated pole is shaped like a ridge that is oriented parallel to the superior branch of the circular sulcus (marginal superior sulcus). According to Schnopfhagen, one may distinguish two parts in the lobule of the insula. The first one, anterior, the short gyrus of the insula [la], that is the most extended and belongs to the frontal lobe. The second one, posterior gyrus (gyrus insulae posterior), that belongs to the temporal lobe.

INSULAR GYRI

  1. Insular gyri; set of insular gyri

    Gyri insulae; classis gyrorum insularum
    Gyrus de l’insula
    Giros de la insula
    A14.1.09.150
    THA : 6031
    Dejerine : (p279-283)
    The central (main) sulcus of the insula (sulcus insularis; main sulcus of the insula of Schnopfhagen) [i] divides the convexity of the insula into two unequal parts. According to Schnopfhagen one may distinguish two parts in the insula. The first one, anterior, the short gyrus of the insula [la], that is the most extended and belongs to the frontal lobe. The second one, posterior, (gyrus insulae posterior) that belongs to the temporal lobe.

  2. Short gyri of the insula ; set of short gyri of the insula

    Gyri breves insulae ; classis gyrorum brevium insularum
    Gyrus courts de l'insula [Ia]
    Giros cortos de la insula
    A14.1.09.152
    THA : 6033
    Dejerine : (p279-283) circonvolution antérieure de l’insula; plis antérieur et moyen de Broca
    The anterior region of the insula [la], triangular in shape and more extended than the posterior ones, displays a set of gyri termed the first three gyri of the insula or the short gyri of the insula. Simple at its origin, that is to say near to the insular boundary where the set of short gyri of the insula presents a small smooth surface, this region is hidden under the pole of the temporal lobe and is hardly half a centimetre wide. The set of short gyri of the insula projects superiorly and laterally and gets progressively wider. The set of short gyri of the insula splits into two or three gyri that spread in form of a fan on the convexity of the insula. The set of short gyri of the insula ends with a large base at the level of the superior part of the circular sulcus (superior marginal sulcus). The set of short gyri of the insula extends between the anterior marginal sulcus [ma] (the anterior part of the circular sulcus) and the central (or main) sulcus of the insula [i]. The set of short gyri of the insula is split by two to four short, and shallow, gyri that usually never reach the pole of the insula nor the superior marginal sulcus (superior part of the circular sulcus). The gyri may sometimes be deep enough to appear as if they were originating from the central insular sulcus (main sulcus). The set of the short gyri of the insula corresponds to the middle and anterior gyri of Broca. The short anterior gyrus projects towards the triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus [F3(c)]. The middle gyrus extends towards the opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus (Op F). The posterior short gyrus extends towards the fronto-parietal operculum [OpR]. The base of the set of the short gyri of the insula includes all the space between the anterior ramus of the lateral sulcus [S(a)] and the parietal notch of the operculum [ipop].

  3. Long gyrus of insula

    Gyrus longus insulae
    Gyrus long de l'insula [Ip]
    Giro largo de la insula
    A14.1.09.151
    THA : 6032
    Dejerine : (p279-283) circonvolution postérieure de l’insula ; pli postérieur de Broca
    The long gyrus, or posterior gyrus, is narrower but longer than the anterior region and extends obliquely superiorly and posteriorly. It originates from the uncus (U) in the form of a narrow sulcus bordering the posterior marginal sulcus (mp) (posterior part of the circular sulcus). It projects superiorly, increasing in width, and ends with a narrow termination at the posterior angle of the insula and below the operculum of the inferior parietal gyrus [Op P2]. Its width varies considerably and contributes at its maximum width to the formation of part of the insular pole. This gyrus is usually split by a longitudinal sulcus that sometimes projects into the central sulcus of the insula from which it appears to emerge.

  4. Limen of the insula, insular threshold

    Limen insulae
    Limen insulae ou Seuil de l'insula [SI]
    Limen de la insula
    A14.1.09.155
    THA : 6036
    Dejerine : (p279-283) seuil de l’insula ; pli falciforme de Broca
    The anterior and posterior parts of the circular sulcus do not meet inferiorly and remain separated by a space of about one centimetre that circumscribes the insula inferiorly and anteriorly and separates it from the anterior perforated substance. This is the insular threshold [SI]. The insular threshold is a flat curvilinear gyrus. It is a real fronto-temporal pli de passage that connects the temporal pole to the orbital part of the frontal lobe. It is bordered by the lateral olfactory stria that separates it from the base of the brain and, more specifically, from the anterior perforated substance. It is at the level of the insular threshold that the trunk of the lateral sulcus (lateral fossa) splits into three rami, an anterior ramus, an ascending ramus and a posterior ramus. It is also from this gyrus that the central sulcus (main) of the insula (sulcus insularis; main sulcus of the insula of Schnopfhagen) [i] takes origin. Tshe central sulcus also divides the convexity of the insula into two unequal parts.

SULCI

  1. Circular sulcus of insula

    Sulcus circularis insulae
    Sillon circulaire de l’insula
    Surco circular de la insula
    A14.1.09.154
    THA ; 6035
    Dejerine : (p279-283) sillon circulaire de l’insula ou sillons marginaux de l’insula
    The base of the insula is always well-delineated from the neighbouring lobes, either by a circular sulcus (the circular sulcus of the insula) or by the marginal sulci of the insula (sulci insulae marginalis of Schnopfhagen) that, being delta-shaped, has superior [ms], anterior [ma] and posterior [mp] extensions.

    1. Anterior part [ma] of the circular sulcus. Dejerine : (p281) sillon marginal antérieur (anterior marginal sulcus) The anterior part of the circular sulcus (anterior marginal sulcus [ma]) appears almost at a right angle from the superior part of the circular sulcus (superior marginal sulcus). It is short, almost vertically oriented, and separates the insula [I] from the orbital part of the frontal inferior gyrus [oF3].
    2. Posterior part [mp] of the circular sulcus Dejerine (p281) sillon marginal postérieur (posterior marginal sulcus) The posterior part of the circular sulcus (posterior marginal sulcus [mp]), is the longest of the branches of the circular sulcus. It projects obliquely inferiorly, describing a curve of posterior convexity, and meets at an acute angle with the superior part of the circular sulcus (superior marginal sulcus). The posterior part separates the insula from the retro-insular region of Broca. Its anterior segment separates the insula from the upper surface of the superior temporal gyrus [T1].
    3. Superior part [ms] of the circular sulcus Dejerine : (p281) sillon marginal supérieur (superior marginal sulcus) The superior part of the circular sulcus of the insula [ms] (superior marginal sulcus) has a saw-tooth profile. Its scalloped bordered extends horizontally backwards and separates the insula from the “sylvian” operculum. From anteriorly to posteriorly, at the level of the operculum and between the two extreme branches of the lateral sulcus, the following gyri and sulci can be identified:
      1. The anterior horizontal branch of the lateral sulcus [S(a)].
      2. The triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus [F3(c)].
      3. The ascending (vertical) ramus of the lateral sulcus [S(v).
      4. The operculum of the inferior frontal gyrus or inserting point of the inferior frontal gyrus on the precental gyrus [Op F3] (frontal operculum of Brissaud). The frontal operculum, that is cut more or less deeply by the inferior precentral sulcus [pri], is sometimes bounded anteriorly by the frontal notch of the frontal operculum (ifop) when it exists.
      5. The frontoparietal operculum (operculum rolandique of Brissaud) [OpR] formed by the inferior fronto-parietal pli de passage (gyrus subcentral Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004) and bounded posteriorly by the parietal notch of the operculum (ipop).
      6. The operculum of the inferior parietal gyrus [Op P2] (the parietal operculum of Brissaud) that extends backwards with the supramarginal gyrus [Gsm] (although it remains separated from it by the spur of the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus [S(p)]).
  2. Central sulcus of insula

    Sulcus centralis insulae
    Sillon central (principal) de l'insula ou sillon insulaire [i]
    Surco central de la insula
    A14.1.09.153
    THA : 6034
    Dejerine : (p279-283) sillon central ; sillon principal de l’insula ; sulcus insularis
    The short and long gyri are separated from each other by a constant sulcus, the central sulcus (main sulcus) of the insula (sulcus insularis [i] of Schnopfhagen). This sulcus begins at the inferior surface of the brain, at the level of the lateral fossa and of the limen insulae at the lateral corner of the anterior perforated substance. The sulcus crosses the limen insulae and the convexity of the insula, and projects superiorly and posteriorly. It terminates in the superior part of the circular sulcus (superior marginal sulcus), ahead of its posterior angle. This constant, and deep, sulcus is about 5mm deep at the level of the crest but disappears imperceptibly into the superior part of the circular sulcus. It is the first sulcus that appears on the surface of the insula and is present in a 30-centimetre embryo. It presents several variations. Its development might begin at both ends at the level of the anterior perforated substance and of the superior marginal sulcus. These two segments project towards the limen of the insula, drawing more closely to each other without fusing. However, the inferior section of the sulcus always separates the short gyri of the insula that belongs to the frontal lobe from the long gyrus that ends in the temporal lobe close to the uncus [U].

03- CENTRAL LOBE (V1-2018)

  1. List of the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations [] and Gillet’s Drawings (p310-311).

    Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels [])

  2. Central lobe [C]
      Gyri
      1. Precentral gyrus [Fa]
      2. Postcentral gyrus [Pa]
      3. Rolandic operculum [OpR]
      4. Paracentral lobule [Parc]
      Sulci
      1. Central sulcus [R]
      2. Paracentral sulcus [parc]
  3. Central lobe

    Dejerine: (p262-263) lobe central d’Ecke
    The central lobe is not recognised in the Terminologia Anatomica. The postcentral and the precentral gyri together form the central lobe (of Eckert). According to Dejerine, the fact that the central lobe is a distinctive lobe is justified because of the ascending and vertical direction of the precentral and postcentral gyri, the fact that they are closely linked, and because of the central lobe’s anatomical and physiological importance. Furthermore, recognition of the central lobe allows the disconnection of the two gyri from the lobes to which they belong. The precentral gyrus that belongs to the frontal lobe, forms the anterior lip of the central sulcus. Its anterior edge is the inserting point of the three frontal gyri. The postcentral gyrus that belongs to parietal lobe, forms the posterior lip of the central sulcus. Its posterior edge is the inserting point of the superior and inferior parietal gyri.

GYRI

  1. Precentral gyrus

    Gyrus precentralis
    Gyrus précentral
    Giro precentral
    A14.1.09.119
    THA:6000
    Dejerine : (p262) circonvolution frontale ascendante; circonvolution rolandique antérieure ou circonvolution centrale antérieure [Fa]
    The precentral gyrus is located in front of the central sulcus and follows this sulcus’s obliquity and sinuosity. At the level of its superior genu and inferior genu, the central sulcus presents a notch that deeply divides the precentral gyrus. The precentral gyrus, that is very voluminous, is divided, in some rare cases, into two parts by the superior frontal sulcus that connects to the central sulcus. When this occurs, the superior part of the precentral gyrus is continuous with the superior frontal gyrus, whereas the inferior part receives the insertion of the middle and inferior gyri. In addition, the junction of the superior frontal sulcus with the central sulcus then is located within the concavity that separates the two geni of the central sulcus. The precentral gyrus arises from the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere, where it forms the largest part of the paracentral lobule called the anterior paracentral gyrus. From there, the gyrus runs obliquely, inferiorly and anteriorly, to course along the sinuosity of the central sulcus. The precentral gyrus ends above the posterior branch of the lateral sulcus; its superior and inferior ends merge with the parietal counterpart, the postcentral gyrus, by two plis de passage, the superior and inferior frontoparietal plis de passage. The inferior frontoparietal pli de passage corresponds to the Rolando operculum of Dejerine (alternatively termed the “central” operculum or gyrus subcentral i.e. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004).

  2. Postcentral gyrus

    Gyrus postcentralis
    Gyrus postcentral
    Giro postcentral
    A14.1.09.128
    THA:6009
    Dejerine : (p264) circonvolution pariétale ascendante ; circonvolution rolandique postérieure ou circonvolution centrale postérieure [Pa]
    The postcentral gyrus runs alongside the sinuosities of the posterior lip of the central sulcus. It is bounded behind by the postcentral gyrus that belongs, according to Dejerine, to the intraparietal sulcus. It continues downwards as an inferior frontoparietal anastomotic pli de passage that forms the posterior part of the inferior frontoparietal operculum (or rolando operculum or central operculum or gyrus subcentral i.e. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004 ).This posterior part of the inferior frontoparietal operculum, as defined by Dejerine, belongs to the parietal operculum as stated by the Terminologia Anatomica. It is the foremost part of the parietal operculum. The postcentral gyrus runs further superiorly, becoming a superior frontoparietal pli de passage called the paracentral lobule. The posterior part of the paracentral lobule is narrow, especially compared to the size of the anterior part that belongs to the precentral gyrus.

  3. Rolando Operculum [Parc]

    Also termed the central operculum or gyrus subcentral i.e. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS, 2004.

    The Rolando, or central, operculum corresponds to the deep surface of the inferior frontoparietal pli de passage between the precentral gyrus and the postcentral gyrus. The inferior frontoparietal pli de passage is usually very superficial. It receives the inferior end of the central sulcus in its superior concavity. Its deep surface forms the “rolando or central” operculum (a term that does not exist in the Terminologia Anatomica) and covers the posterior gyri of the insula. Two notches of the lateral sulcus, the frontal notch and the parietal notch of the operculum (ifop and ipop), bound it anteriorly and posteriorly. The inferior frontopatrietal pli de passage is sometimes deeply buried into the lateral sulcus and cannot be readily seen and then only when one moves apart the lateral sulcus. Accordingly, it seems as if the central sulcus ‘flows’ directly into the lateral sulcus.

  4. Paracentral lobule

    Lobulus paracentralis
    Lobule paracentral
    Lóbulo paracentral
    A14.1.09.209
    THA:6045
    Dejerine: (p262) lobule paracentral [Parc]
    The paracentral lobule is the superior frontoparietal pli de passage. It runs along the superior edge of the cerebral hemisphere and encroaches upon the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere. The anterior part or frontal part corresponds to the superior edge of the precentral gyrus. It is named the anterior paracentral gyrus in the Terminologia Anatomica. The paracentral lobule is wide, voluminuous, oval-shaped and forms, with virtually no other contributions, the whole of the paracentral lobule. The posterior parietal part that is narrow, corresponds to the superior edge of the postcentral gyrus. It is named the posterior paracentral gyrus in the Terminologia Anatomica.

  5. Anterior paracentral gyrus

    Gyrus paracentral antérieur
    Gyrus centralis anterior
    Giro paracentral anterior
    A14.1.09.103
    THA:6046
    The anterior paracentral gyrus corresponds to the superior part of the precentral gyrus that is located on the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere. It is wide, voluminous, and oval-shaped. It forms virtually the whole of the paracentral lobule. Like the precentral gyrus, it belongs to the frontal lobe. However, according to Dejerine, it could belong to the central lobe.

  6. Posterior paracentral gyrus Gyrus paracentralis posterio
    Gyrus paracentral postérieur
    Giro paracentral posterior
    A14.1.09.22
    THA:6058
    The posterior paracentral gyrus is narrow and corresponds to the superior edge of the postcentral gyrus. It lies along the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere. As for the postcentral gyrus, it belongs to the parietal lobe. However, according to Dejerine, it could be considered as part of the central lobe.

SULCI

  1. Central sulcus

    Sulcus centralis
    Sillon central
    Surco central
    A14.1.09.103
    THA:5984
    Dejerine : (p248-250) Scissure de Rolando (R)
    The central sulcus runs obliquely inferiorly and anteriorly. It begins above on the superior edge of the cerebral hemisphere, where it encroaches slightly the internal surface of the hemisphere. Subsequently, the central sulcus runs inferiorly and fanteriorly to terminate in the operculum (more or less close to the lateral sulcus). The central sulcus does not describe a straight line. It is sinuous, with two sinuosities that are convex anteriorly being constant and occupying the superior and inferior parts of the central sulcus. These are known as the superior genu and inferior genu. They are separated from each other anteriorly by a concave curve that is more or less accentuated and that corresponds to the insertion of the middle frontal gyrus at the precentral gyrus. The central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. It is bordered along its course by two voluminous and important gyri that run parallel to the sulcus and follow its sinuosities. They are known as the precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus. The precentral gyrus is anterior and belongs to the frontal lobe whereas the postcentral gyrus is posterior and belongs to the parietal lobe. The superior end of the central sulcus, that is located slightly behind the middle part of the cerebral hemisphere, is bounded by the superior frontoparietal pli de passage called the paracentral lobule [Parc]. This lobule connects the superior end of the precentral gyrus to the superior end of the postcentral gyrus at the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere. The inferior end, that is bounded by the inferior frontoparietal pli de passage, is called by Dejerine the Rolando operculum. The central operculum ends above the lateral sulcus about three centimeters behind its ascending or vertical ramus. The inferior frontoparietal pli de passage [OpR] is sometimes deeply buried within the lateral sulcus. Superficially, it appears that the central sulcus ‘flows’ directly into the lateral sulcus. It is usually only necessary to move aside the operculum to ascertain that the inferior frontoparietal pli de passage is constant. One or more transversal folds often notch the lower part of the central sulcus. These are genuine deep pli de passage between the precentral and the postcentral gyrus. In rare cases, these folds become superficial.

  2. Paracentral sulcus

    Sulcus paracentralis
    Sillon paracentral
    Surco paracentral
    A14.1.09.208
    THA:6044
    Dejerine: (p287) Incisure pré-ovalaire de Broca; sillon paracentral de Meynert [parc]
    The paracentral sulcus corresponds to a notch that is more or less constant. The paracentral sulcus is located slightly in front of the bend of the cingulate sulcus or callosomarginal sulcus. The paracentral sulcus forms the anterior limit of the paracentral lobule.

04- FRONTAL LOBE (V1-2018)

  1. List of the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations [] and Gillet’s Drawings (p310-311).

    Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels [])

  2. Frontal lobe (frontal pole) [F]
      Gyri
      1. Superior frontal gyrus [F1]
        1. Medial part or median frontal gyrus [mF1]
        2. Orbital part [oF1]
        3. Straight gyrus [oF1(Gr)]
      2. Middle frontal gyrus [F2]
        1. Orbital part [oF2]
      3. Inferior frontal gyrus [F3]
        1. Frontal operculum [OpF3]
        2. Opercular part [pF3]
        3. Triangular part [F3(c)]
        4. Orbital part [oF3]
      Sulci
      1. Superior precentral sulcus [prs]
      2. Inferior precentral sulcus [pri]
        1. Precentral sulcus union of superior and inferior precentral sulci [pr]
      3. Superior frontal sulcus [f1]
        1. Its notches [f1’]
      4. Inferior frontal sulcus [f2]
        1. Its notches [f2’]
        2. Notch of the triangular part [ic]
      5. Sulcus of the middle frontal gyrus [f’2]
      6. Orbital sulci (H-shaped notch) [f3]
      7. Olfactory sulcus [f4]
      8. Fronto-marginal sulcus [fm]
      9. Lateral orbital sulcus [soe]
      10. Supra-orbital sulcus [so]
      11. Second supra-orbital sulcus [so’]
  3. Frontal lobe

    Lobus frontalis
    Lobe frontal
    Lóbulo frontal
    A14.1.09.110
    THA : 5991
    Dejerine: (p251) lobe frontal
    The frontal lobe is located in front of the central sulcus and above the lateral sulcus. The frontal lobe presents an external (lateral) surface that is referred to as the dorsal portion of the frontal lobe. It extends superiorly to the level of the superior margin of the cerebral hemisphere and projects further onto the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere where it forms the medial frontal gyrus. The frontal lobe curves anteriorly on the inferior surface of the cerebral hemisphere to form the orbital region of the frontal lobe. The lateral surface of the frontal lobe is divided into four gyri by three sulci, the precentral sulcus that is divided into a superior part and an inferior part, the superior frontal sulcus, and the inferior frontal sulcus. Among the four gyri, the precentral gyrus runs obliquely superiorly and posteriorly and is parallel to the central sulcus. The three frontal gyri, superior, middle and inferior, run postero-anteriorly and curve inferiorly at the level of the anterior margin of the frontal lobe to form the orbital region of the frontal lobe (or orbital gyri).

  4. Frontal pole

    Lobus frontalis
    Pôle frontal
    Polo fronta
    A14.1.09.111
    THA:5992
    Dejerine: (p 258) Pôle frontal
    The inferior frontal gyrus begins in the orbital region, at the posterior end of the olfactory sulcus, where it has a tapered-shaped root that is common to the superior frontal gyrus. Indeed, it constitutes the frontal pole (of Hervé).

  5. Orbital gyri, set of orbital gyri

    Gyri orbitales, classis gyrorum orbitalium
    Gyrus orbitaires
    Gyros orbitarios
    A14.1.09.216
    THA: 6052
    Dejerine (p 256) Région orbitaire
    The orbital region is the starting point of the three frontal gyri: superior, middle and inferior. This essentially triangular-shaped region forms the inferior surface (or orbital surface) of the frontal lobe and lies on the orbital plate of the frontal bone. Because of its location, it is referred to as the orbital lobule. The orbital lobule is bounded medially by the longitudinal fissure of the cerebral hemisphere. Anteriorly and laterally, it is bounded by the small frontomarginal sulcus (fm). Posteriorly, the orbital lobule forms the anterior margin of the lateral fossa. It terminates by forming a sharp edge that is bordered by the external olfactory stria at the level of the anterior perforated substance along the margin of the cerebral cortex.

GYRI

  1. Superior frontal gyrus

    Gyrus frontalis superior
    Gyrus frontal supérieur
    Giro frontal superior
    A14.1.09.121
    THA:6002
    Dejerine : (p 256) première circonvolution frontale, circonvolution frontale supérieure
    The superior frontal gyrus has the most prominent curvature of the frontal gyri. It occupies the superior end of the cerebral hemisphere and borders the longitudinal fissure. The superior frontal gyrus forms the medial frontal gyrus on the medial surface of the brain. The superior frontal gyrus has a common origin with the inferior and middle gyri on the inferior surface of the frontal lobe. They form the orbital region (or inferior region) of the frontal lobe. The orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus occupies the internal portion of this region. It is separated from the straight gyrus that is antero-posterior oriented, by the olfactory sulcus where the olfactory peduncle is located, and the olfactory bulb. The gyrus rectus, or straight gyrus, is the straight part of the internal half of the orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus. The external section is wider and more convoluted and demarcates the internal limit of an irregular sulcus in an H-, K- or X-shaped formation that is referred to as the orbital sulcus or H-shaped notch. The three frontal gyri start at the level of the orbital region and have a common origin. They are narrow at their beginning but gradually increase in size the closer they are to the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. They display numerous gyri and merge with the precentral gyrus. The superior frontal gyrus forms a very wide, sinuous and thick gyrus that is often divided along its length by a tertiary sulcus. This tertiary sulcus is often shallow and broken up by numerous plis de passage. Usually, posteriorly the superior frontal gyrus terminates into the precentral gyrus by two inserting points located very close to the longitudinal fissure of the brain and separated from each other by the superior precentral gyrus.

  2. Medial frontal gyrus

    Gyrus frontalis medialis
    Gyrus frontal médial
    Giro frontal medio (mediano?)
    A14.1.09.207
    THA:6043
    Dejerine : (p290) circonvolution frontale interne [mF1]
    The medial frontal gyrus is in reality the internal surface of the superior frontal gyrus. It begins below the genu of the corpus callosum and the cingulate gyrus. It is usually divided by one or more sulci lying parallel to the cingulate sulcus, the inferior supra-orbital notches of Broca. The medial frontal gyrus extends superiorly and posteriorly, demarcating the longitudinal fissure of the cerebral hemisphere and forming the superior margin of the cerebral hemisphere. Posteriorly, it merges with the paracentral lobule. It is notched along its courses by numerous notches that are variable in depth and are either entirely separate or connected to cingulate sulcus. One of these notches is particularly deep and constant and is part of the supra-orbital sulcus of Broca.

  3. Straight gyrus

    Gyrus rectus
    Gyrus rectus (droit)
    Giro recto
    A14.1.09.218
    THA:6054
    Dejerine: (p255) Gyrus rectus
    The gyrus rectus corresponds to the internal segment of the orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus. It is referred to as the gyrus rectus because of its straight course. It is situated medial to the olfactory sulcus.

  4. Middle frontal gyrus

    Gyrus frontalis medius
    Gyrus frontal moyen
    Giro frontal medio
    A14.1.09.118
    THA:5999
    Dejerine: (p256-257) seconde circonvolution frontale [F2]
    The features of the middle frontal gyrus show great variability, in terms of origin, mass and termination. It appears more like a lobule than an actual gyrus. Moreover, its anterior part is often divided. The superior frontal sulcus demarcates it from the superior frontal gyrus whereas one or two plis de passage usually connect it to the superior frontal gyrus. The inferior frontal sulcus separates it from the inferior frontal gyrus. The middle frontal gyrus begins in the orbital region of the frontal lobe with two or three roots that curve around the frontomarginal sulcus. The middle frontal gyrus then runs parallel to the superior frontal gyrus. It fits into the superior half of the precentral gyrus, pushing it posteriorly. The notch subdividing this convolution is referred to as the sulcus of the middle frontal gyrus.

  5. Inferior frontal gyrus

    Gyrus frontalis inferior
    Gyrus frontal inférieur
    Giro frontal inferior
    A14.1.09.117
    THA:5994
    Dejerine: (p257-258) troisième circonvolution frontale ou circonvolution de Broca [F3]
    The inferior frontal gyrus is located at the most inferior part of the frontal lobe. It exhibits numerous, and very accentuated, curvatures around the horizontal anterior ramus and the vertical ascending ramus of the lateral sulcus. The inferior frontal gyrus begins in the orbital region, next to the posterior end of the olfactory sulcus. It arises as a slender root common to the superior frontal gyrus and thus forms the frontal pole. It projects transversally and laterally from its beginning and constitutes the posterior limit of the orbital part of the frontal lobe. The inferior frontal gyrus runs posteriorly along the convexity of the cerebral hemisphere and fits into the inferior part of the precentral gyrus after it shows several curvatures shaped like a “M”. The termination of the gyrus is short and narrow and merges with the inferior part of the precentral gyrus. It is usually deeply buried into the lateral fossa and enfolds the inferior end of the precentral sulcus in its concavity. Indeed, it is sometimes so deeply buried in the depth of the lateral fossa that, at first sight, the precentral sulcus seems to continue directly into the lateral sulcus. The inferior frontal gyrus consists of three parts. The first part, an inferior orbital one, is located between the olfactory sulcus and the anterior horizontal ramus of the lateral sulcus; the second part, a medium triangular part, is located between the anterior horizontal ramus and the ascending vertical ramus of the lateral sulcus; the last part is the posterior part (or opercular part) located posterior to the vertical ascending ramus of the lateral sulcus.

  6. Frontal operculum

    Operculum frontale
    Opercule frontal
    Opérculo frontal
    A14.1.09.112
    THA : 5993
    Dejerine : (p248)
    The cerebral cortex between the anterior horizontal ramus and the posterior ramus is named the operculum. It forms the superior edge of the lateral fossa and serves as a ‘cap’ to a lobe buried into the lateral fissure, the insula or lobe of insula [I].

  7. OpF3 OpP2 OpR OpT1

    The Rolando operculum [OpR] is located between the frontal notch of the operculum of Brissaud (p 247) and the parietal notch of the operculum of Broca (p 280). (p 250)
    It corresponds to the inferior frontoparietal pli de passage or “Rolando operculum of Brissaud”. It might either course superficially on the lateral surface or be deeply buried into the lateral fossa. In the latter case, one must lift the operculum to see it and the central sulcus appears as if it joins directly with the lateral sulcus (p 280). Dejerine: (p 259) The inferior margin and inferior surface of the inferior frontal gyrus form the anterior part of the superior lip of the lateral sulcus (lateral fossa). They overlap the lobe of the insula and are closely linked with them. The deep side of the triangular-shaped part and the region adjacent to the orbital part overlap the anterior surface of the insula. They are demarcated from it by a deep vertical sulcus, the anterior marginal sulcus of the insula (or anterior part of the circular sulcus of the insula). The opercular part overlaps the superior part of the anterior insula (la). It is separated from it by an anteroposterior sulcus, the superior marginal sulcus of the insula (or superior part of the circular sulcus of the insula).

  8. Opercular part

    Pars opercularis
    Partie operculaire
    Porción opercular
    A14.1.09.116
    THA:5997
    Dejerine: (p 259) pied ou partie operculaire [OpF3]
    The opercular part extends with the triangular part to create a narrow, and stretched, fold that sometimes gets thinner, sometimes wider. It forms a small lobule with essentially a quadrangular shape. Its surface displays one or more dimples (= fossette). This lobule is sometimes split and follows an extended, and curved, route around a vertical notch that originates either from the lateral sulcus or from the inferior frontal sulcus. The lobule sends in general a pli de passage to the middle frontal gyrus that can be superficial but, more often, deep. The opercular part runs thereafter downwards and follows a route parallel to the precentral gyrus [Fa]. It describes a concave curve that envelopes the lower end of the inferior precentral sulcus and separates it from the lateral sulcus. At the end of its course it merges with the lower end of the precentral gyrus through a narrow, thin, short, and often deep, sulcus. 

  9. Orbital part

    Pars orbitalis
    Partie orbitaire
    Porción orbitaria
    A14.1.09.114
    THA:5995
    Dejerine: (p258) partie orbitaire
    The orbital part is thin at both of its ends and wide in its middle where it extends anteriorly up to the transverse branch of the orbital sulcus (H-shaped notch) forming the “desert olfactif de Broca” (olfactory desert of Broca). It turns posteriorly and follows the convex surface of the cerebral hemisphere. It forms an anterior concave curve at its anterior end that demarcates inferiorly the horizontal anterior ramus of the lateral sulcus and encompasses the external end of the frontomarginal sulcus. The lateral olfactory stria follows the posterior limit of the orbital part. The internal extremity of the opercular part merges with the external part of the orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus and forms the frontal pole. Its external end continues with the triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Usually, it sends to the middle frontal gyrus a pli de passage that demarcates anteriorly the inferior frontal sulcus.

  10. Triangular part

    Pars triangularis
    Partie triangulaire
    Porción triangular
    A14.1.09.115
    THA:5996
    Dejerine: (p259) cap ou partie triangulaire
    The triangular part between the two rami, horizontal anterior and vertical ascending, of the lateral sulcus has a very characteristic feature because of its shape and its consistency. Its apex, projects into the lateral fossa whereas its base is often split by a deep notch that originates from the inferior frontal sulcus (the notch of the triangular part). Either one of the branch of this base projects a superficial pli de passage to the middle frontal gyrus that breaks off the continuity of the inferior frontal sulcus.

SULCI

  1. Precentral sulcus

    Sulcus precentralis
    Sillon précentral
    Surco precentral
    A14.1.09.120
    THA:6001
    Dejerine: (p252) sillons précentraux supérieur et inférieur; Union des sillons précentraux supérieur et inférieur
    The precentral sulcus demarcates anteriorly the precentral gyrus. It begins inferiorly in the angle formed by the vertical ascending and posterior branch of the lateral sulcus. It is always split by, a more or less, thin pli de passage that is sometimes deeply buried in the lateral sulcus. This fold is a pli de passage of the inferior frontal gyrus into the precentral gyrus. The precentral sulcus projects obliquely, superiorly and posteriorly, parallel to the central sulcus. However, it almost never reaches the longitudinal cerebral fissure. In most cases, it is terminated by numerous plis de passage that are either superficial or deep. The main plis de passage are made those of the inferior and superior frontal gyri. When these two plis de passage are deep, the precentral sulcus extends from the area of the lateral sulcus to the longitudinal cerebral fissure. Viewed superficially, the precentral sulcus might be mistaken for the central sulcus as it follows the same direction. The plis de passage are more often superficial, in which case the precentral sulcus splits into an inferior segment and a superior segment. The inferior precentral sulcus, the longer and most important, receives usually the inferior frontal sulcus and the sulcus of the second frontal gyrus. When the inferior frontal gyrus fits into the precentral gyrus through two superficial plis de passage, the inferior precentral sulcus is reduced to a short, isolated notch. The superior precentral sulcus is much smaller than the inferior sulcus and receives the superior frontal sulcus. To the eye, it looks as if it were a notch in the superior frontal gyrus. However, the superior frontal sulcus sometimes is predominant and it might then reach in length the inferior precentral sulcus and even surpass in size the inferior precentral sulcus and hence compensate for it.

  2. Superior frontal sulcus

    Sulcus frontalis superior
    Sillon frontal supérieur
    Surco frontal superior
    A14.1.09.122
    THA: 6003
    Dejerine : (p253-254) Premier sillon frontal (Broca); sulcus frontalis superior (Ecker, Pansch)
    The superior frontal sulcus is an antero-posteriorly oriented sulcus that separates the superior frontal gyrus from the middle frontal gyrus. It courses from back to front from the superior precentral sulcus up to the anterior end of the frontal lobe. It begins posteriorly between the two segments of the precentral sulcus and is usually separated from them by the plis de passage of the superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. Its origin may vary and is irregular. The superior frontal sulcus may sometimes form one segment or another of the precentral sulcus. It might locate more posteriorly the inferior precentral gyrus and notch it more or less deeply behind the inferior precentral sulcus. It may occasionally originate from the central sulcus and divides completely the precentral gyrus. The superior frontal sulcus may also be reduced to a few notches. It is interrupted by two plis de passage, that link the superior frontal gyrus to the middle frontal gyrus. A third pli de passage usually demarcates it anteriorly from the frontomarginal sulcus of Wernicke.

  3. Inferior frontal sulcus

    Sulcus frontalis inferior
    Sillon frontal inférieur
    Surco frontal inferior
    A14.1.09.117
    THA:5998
    Dejerine : (p254-255) Deuxième sillon frontal, sulcus frontalis inferior untere Stirfurche (Ecker)
    The inferior frontal sulcus arises from the inferior precentral sulcus at a right angle. It runs postero-anteriorly and separates the inferior frontal gyrus from the middle frontal gyrus.  It is interrupted in its course by one or more plis de passage that connect the inferior and middle gyri. Anteriorly, an pli de passage separates it from the frontomarginal sulcus in which it sometimes ends.

  4. Sulcus of the middle frontal gyru

    Dejerine : (p257) sillon de la deuxième circonvolution frontale.
    The notch dividing the middle frontal gyrus is referred to as the sulcus of the middle frontal gyrus.

  5. Olfactory sulcus

    Sulcus olfactorius
    Sillon olfactif
    Sulco olfactorio
    A14.1.09.219
    THA: 6055
    Dejerine: (p256) Sillon olfactif
    The olfactory sulcus is a straight sulcus that is antero-posteriorly oriented and that accommodates the peduncle and the olfactory bulb. It divides the orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus that occupies the internal portion of the orbital part.

  6. Frontomarginal sulcus Sillon fronto-marginal
    Dejerine : (p255) sillon fronto-marginal de Wernicke
    The frontomarginal sulcus of Wernicke is a small, shallow, horizontal and transverse sulcus. It separates the lateral surface of the frontal lobe from the orbital part of the frontal lobe. The frontomarginal sulcus is rarely interrupted and has the shape of a circumflex accent. It is prominently open inferiorly because of the one or two plis de passage connecting the middle frontal gyrus or the superior frontal gyrus to the orbital gyri. This sulcus may be isolated. It sometimes receives, at essentially a right angle, either the sulcus of the middle frontal gyrus that divides the middle frontal gyrus, either the inferior frontal sulcus or even the superior frontal sulcus. Its medial extremity sometimes reaches the superior margin of the cerebral hemisphere and marks a notch that is always located below the supra-orbital notch of Broca.
  7. Orbital sulci; set of orbital sulci
    Sulci orbitals; classis sulcorum orbitalium
    Sillons orbitaires; groupe des sillons orbitaires
    Surcos orbitarios
    A14.1.09. 217
    THA: 6053  classis sulcorum orbitalium
    Dejerine : (p256) sillon cruciforme de Rolando, sillon triradié deTurner, sillon orbitaire, sulcus orbitales de Ecker, incisure en H de Broca
    The lateral portion of the orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus is more sinuous and wider than the gyrus rectus. It forms the medial limit of an irregular sulcus, the orbital sulcus that is shaped like an H, a K, or an X. The medial and external segments of the orbital sulcus are comprised of the orbital part of the middle frontal gyrus and of the inferior frontal gyrus. The middle frontal gyrus usually provides the anterior portion of the orbital lobule whereas the pli de passage between the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus provides the posterior portion. The lateral half of the orbital lobule sometimes can be solely formed by the middle frontal gyrus. This is the case when the frontomarginal sulcus [fm] is not bounded by the pli de passage of the inferior and middle frontal gyri.
  8. Supra-orbital sulcus  
    Sillon supra-orbitaire
    Dejerine : (p290) Sillon sus-orbitaire de Broca
    The supra-orbital sulcus of Broca is a notch of the medial frontal gyrus. It is deep and constant and is either solitary or joined to the cingulate sulcus.

05- Parietal  LOBE (V1-2018)

  1. List of the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations [] and Gillet’s Drawings (p310-311).

    Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels [])

  2.   Parietal lobe  [P]
      Gyri
      1.    Superior parietal lobule [P1]
              o  Medial part or Precuneus [PrC]
              o   First vertical fold of  Gromier [πG1]
              o   Second vertical fold of Gromier [πG2]
      2.    Inferior parietal lobule [P2]
              o   Operculum  [OpP2]
              o   Supramarginal gyrus [Gsm]
              o   Angular gyrus [Pc]
      Sulci
      1.    Post-central sulcus [por]
      2.    Intraparietal sulcus [ip]
              o   Its notches [ip’]
              o   Notch of Jensen [j]
      3.    Transverse parietal sulcus [pt]
  3.   Parietal Lobe
    Lobus parietalis Lobe pariétal
    Lóbulo parietal
    A14.1.09.123
    THA : 6004
    Dejerine: (p130; 263) Lobe parietal [P]
    The parietal lobe is clearly delimited anteriorly by the central sulcus and inferiorly by the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. Posteriorly, the limits are indistinct and therefore only defined arbitrarily since the parietal lobe merges with the occipital and temporal lobes. The posterior and inferior limits are indicated by a line, which is continuous with the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus, and an imaginary line connecting the parieto-occipital sulcus with the pre-occipital notch. On its medial surface, the parietal lobe forms the precuneus and the posterior part of the paracentral lobule ahead of the marginal branch of the cingulate sulcus. The intraparietal sulcus divides the lateral surface of the lobe into three: the postcentral gyrus, the superior parietal lobule and the inferior parietal lobule. The inferior parietal lobule is divided into two parts: anteriorly, the supramarginal gyrus that turns around the posterior end of the lateral sulcus to provide a continuation between the parietal lobe and the temporal lobe, and posteriorly, the angular gyrus that turns around the superior temporal sulcus and that merges with the parietal and occipital lobes.

GYRI

  1. Superior parietal lobule

    Lobulus parietalis superior

    Lobule pariétal supérieur
    Lóbulo parietal superior
    A14.1.09.130
    THA :6011
    Dejerine (p267) circonvolution pariétal supérieure, première circonvolution pariétale [P1]
    The superior parietal lobule is wide anteriorly and narrow posteriorly and occupies only a small part of the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. It opens out on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere where it forms the precuneus. This lobule presents as a series of twists that fit into the postcentral gyrus [Pa] through a wide base that is often divided into two parts. Posteriorly, it is continuous with the first occipital gyrus through the first pli de passage of Gratiolet and bounds the notch produced by the parieto-occipital sulcus [po] on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere.
  2. Precuneus
    Precuneus
    Précuneus
    Precuña
    A14.1.09.223
    THA : 6059
    Dejerine : (p291) précuneus ou lobule quadrilatère de Foville
    The superior parietal lobule of the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere forms the precuneus on its medial surface. The precuneus is bounded anteriorly by the marginal branch of the cingulate sulcus, posteriorly by the parieto-occipital sulcus, superiorly by the superior margin of the cerebral hemisphere, and inferiorly by the subparietal sulcus. The precuneus has two convolutions, anterior and posterior,  separated by a deep vertical sulcus, sometimes separate or othertimes connected to the subparietal sulcus by the transverse parietal sulcus (of Brissaud). The two precuneus convolutions are linked to the limbic lobe by two plis de passage, the posterior and the anterior parietolimbic pli de passage.
  3. Inferior parietal lobule
    Lobulus parietalis inferior
    Lobule pariétal inférieur
    lóbulo parietal inferior
    A14.1.09.125
    THA : 6006
    Dejerine (p267) circonvolution pariétale inférieure, lobule pariétal inférieur (Ecker); Deuxième circonvolution pariétale [P2] (Broca)
    The inferior parietal lobule has many convolutions and is located below the intraparietal sulcus. It is divided into two parts by the intermediary sulcus of Jensen [j]. The anterior part arises from the inferior end of the precentral gyrus. It terminates at the superior temporal gyrus through the first parietotemporal pli de passage of Broca that curves around the posterior end of the lateral sulcus. The first parietotemporal pli de passage of Broca is known as the supramarginal gyrus or marginal superior lobule (or fold) of Gratiolet [Gsm]. After forming the supramarginal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobule becomes wider as it runs superiorly. It courses around the intermediate sulcus of Jensen and also the posterior edge of the superior temporal sulcus. Superiorly, the inferior parietal lobule describes a curve convex. It separates into two folds, the anterior loop that runs posteriorly around the superior temporal sulcus [t1] to form the angular gyrus [Pc] and the posterior loop that merges into the second occipital gyrus [O2] to form the second pli de passage of Gratiolet.
  4. Parietal operculum
    Operculum parietale
    Opercule pariétal
    Opérculo parietal
    A14.1.09.126
    THA : 6007
    Dejerine (p 281) opercule de la circonvolution pariétale inférieure [Op P2] ; opercule pariétal de Brissaud
    The parietal operculum corresponds to the operculum of the inferior parietal gyrus [Op P2]. It is a continuation of the frontoparietal operculum (Rolando operculum of Brissaud) [OpR] comprised of the inferior frontoparietal pli de passage bounded posteriorly by the parietal notch of the operculum (ipop]. The parietal operculum extends posteriorly alongside the supramarginal gyrus [Gsm], although it remains separated from it by the spur of the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus [S(p)].
  5. Supramarginal gyrus
    Gyrus supramarginalis
    Gyrus supramarginal
    Giro supramarginal
    A14.1.09.131
    THA : 6012
    Dejerine (p269) Gyrus supramarginalis ; Premier pli de passage pariéto-temporal de Broca [Gsm] [P2[Gsm]
    (See inferior parietal gyrus)
  6. Angular gyrus
    Gyrus angularis
    Gyrus angulaire
    Gyro angular
    A14.1.09.124
    THA:6005
    Dejerine (p289) gyrus angularis d’Ecker ou deuxième pli de passage pariéto-temporal de Broca
    (See inferior parietal gyrus)
  7. Postcentral gyrus 
    Gyrus postcentralis
    Gyrus postcentral
    Giro postcentral
    A14.1.09.128
    THA :6009
    Dejerine p264 circonvolution  pariétale ascendante [Pa]
    (see central lobe)

SULCI

  1. Intraparietal sulcus

    Intraparietal sulcus
    Sulcus intraparietalis
    Sillon intrapariétal
    Surco intraparietal
    A14.1.09.127
    THA : 6008
    Dejerine : (p264) sillon interpariétal
    The intraparietal sulcus is located on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. It separates the parietal lobe into a superior parietal lobule and an inferior parietal lobule. According to the classical definition, it includes the postcentral ulcus.                                                                                                         According to Dejerine, the intraparietal sulcus begins behind the postero-inferior part of the postcentral gyrus, above the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. At its beginning, it is oriented superiorly and posteriorly, parallel to the postcentral gyrus, running along its posterior edge. Thereafter, it displays a marked curvature, concave on its inferior side. It passes beyond the limits of the parietal lobe and into the occipital lobe where it merges with the inter-occipital sulcus. Two ramifications originate from its concavity, an ascending ramus, the transverse parietal sulcus (Brissaud), and a descending branch, the intermediate sulcus of Jensen. The intermediate sulcus of Jensen divides the inferior parietal gyrus into the supramarginal gyrus and the angular gyrus.

  2. Postcentral sulcus
    Sulcus postcentral
    Sillon post-central
    Surco postcentral
    A14.1.09.129
    THA : 6010
    Dejerine : (p265) sillon postrolandique ; sillon postcentral
    The postcentral sulcus that is located on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere delimits the postcentral gyrus posteriorly. According to Dejerine, the postcentral sulcus is comprised of the initial vertical part of the intraparietal sulcus that bounds posteriorly the postcentral gyrus, and by its ascending continuation that begins before its inferior concave-shaped curve. The postcentral sulcus is inseparable from the intraparietal sulcus. The postcentral sulcus often becomes discontinuous because of deep or superficial plis de passage. According to contemporary descriptions, it is merely composed of a set of sulcus segments separated by gyri, sometimes located in the cortical depth. There are five segments (Zlatkina & Petrides, 2010).
  3. Parieto-occipital sulcus
    Sulcus parietooccipitalis
    Sillon parieto-occipital
    Surco parieto-occipital
    A14.1.09.108
    THA: 5989
    Dejerine: (p284) sillon pariéto-occipital
    The parieto-occipital sulcus is comprised of two segments, an external segment representing the external perpendicular sulcus of Gratiolet (which forms a simple notch on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere) and an internal segment constituting the actual parieto-occipital sulcus (or internal perpendicular sulcus of Gratiolet). On the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere, the internal segment of the parieto-occipital sulcus constitutes the anterior limit of the occipital lobe and separates the cuneus from the precuneus and the posterior part of the limbic lobe. It continues obliquely inferiorly and anteriorly, merges with the calcarine sulcus at a acute angle, and cuts more or less deeply the narrow part of the limbic lobe (termed the isthmus of the cingulate gyrus) that is located below the splenium of the corpus callosum

06- TEMPORAL LOBE (V1-2018)

  1. List of the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations [] and Gillet’s Drawings (p310-311).

    Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels [])

  2. Temporal  lobe (temporal pole) [T]
      Gyri
      1.   
      Superior temporal gyrus [T1]
      2.    Middle temporal gyrus [T2]
      3.    Inferior temporal gyrus [T3]
      4.    Transverse temporal gyrus ; deep temporal gyrus [Tp]; Retro-insular region
      Sulci
      1.    Superior temporal sulcus [t1]
              o    Vertical branches
      2.    Inferior temporal sulcus [t2]
      3.    Occipito-temporal sulcus [t3]
              o   pre-occipital notch. [ipo]
      4.    Deep temporal sulcus [tp]
      5.    Temporal notch.  [it]
      6.    Collateral sulcus. [ot]
  3. Detail of a Dejerine ‘s slice (coronal slice of temporal lobe)
    S(p) lateral sulcus, lateral fossa
    T1  superior temporal gyrus
    (t1) superior temporal sulcus
    T2 middle temporal gyrus
    (t2) inferior temporal sulcus
    T3 inferior temporal gyrus
    (t3) occipitotemporal sulcus
    Fus fusiform gyrus or lateral occipitotemporal gyrus
    (ot) collateral sulcus
    H  parahippocampal gyrus
    Cg  dentate gyrus
    OpR Rolando operculum
    Ip long gyri of Insula
    Tp deep temporal gyrus
    Ipop parietal notches of Broca
  4. Temporal lobe
    Lobus temporalis
    Lobe temporal
    Lóbulo temporal
    A14.1.09.136
    THA:6017
    Dejerine: (p 134, 274-275) lobe temporal [T]
    The temporal lobe occupies the inferior part of the cerebral hemisphere. It has the shape of long a triangular pyramid. Its base blends into the occipital lobe and the parietal lobe whereas its apex constitutes the free extremity of the temporal lobe, the temporal pole (“pole de Broca.” Broca’s pole). It is the meeting point of the three surfaces of the temporal lobe, superior, lateral and inferior. The inferior or concave surface is continuous, without demarcation, with the inferior surface of the occipital lobe and forms the temporo-occipital region. The boundaries of the convex or lateral surface are defined by an imaginary line that extends from the posterior edge of the lateral sulcus to the preoccipital notch (of Schwalbe). The superior surface forms the inferior edge of the lateral sulcus. When it covers the inferior part of the insula region, it is called the temporal operculum. On its lateral surface the temporal lobe is formed by three antero posteriorly oriented parallel gyri, the superior, middle and inferior gyri. They join together anteriorly and form the temporal pole. On its inferior surface, the temporal lobe displays two gyri, the inferior surface of the inferior temporal gyrus and the fusiform gyrus or lateral occipitotemporal gyrus. The gyrus parahippocampal is part of the limbic lobe for Dejerine, even if it is part of the temporal lobe.
  5. Temporal pole
    Polus temporalis
    Pôle temporal
    Polo temporal
    A14.1.09.137
    THA: 6018                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Dejerine:(p274,298) Pôle  temporal                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The temporal pole is the meeting point of the lateral, superior and inferior surfaces of the temporal lobe forming its anterior end. Anteriorly, the temporal pole extends beyond the uncus to which it is invariably connected by a continuous pli de passage that is more or less deeply notched by the temporal notch of Schwalbe (or sillon pre-uncique of Brissa
  6. Temporal operculum
    Operculum temporale
    Opercule temporal
    Operculo temporal
    A14.1.09.139
    THA:6020
    Dejerine: (p;692) opercule temporal
    The dorso-medial surface of the superior temporal gyrus forms the lower lip of the lateral sulcus and extends deeply inside the lateral cerebral fossa. This dorso-medial surface covers the inferior part of insular lobe and is separated from it by the posterior part of the circular sulcus of the insula. Smooth anteriorly, it gets wider posteriorly with one to two plis de passage originating from it, called the retroinsular region of Broca or transverse gyrus of Heschl.

GYRI

  1. Superior temporal gyrus
    Gyrus temporalis superior (Ecker)
    Gyrus temporal supérieur
    Giro temporal superior
    A14.1.09.138
    THA:6019
    Dejerine : (p278) Première circonvolution temporale [T1]
    The superior temporal gyrus extends from the pole of the temporal lobe to the posterior extremity of the lateral sulcus. Diverting around it, it anastomoses itself with the inferior parietal gyrus forming the supramarginal gyrus.  It is separated from the middle temporal gyrus by the parallel sulcus. The superior temporal gyrus cuts through the parallel sulcus with a pli de passage.  The intermediary sulcus of Jensen separates it from the angular gyrus. Its superior surface forms the lower lip of the lateral sulcus and extends itself deeply into the lateral fissure of the brain. This superior surface lays over the inferior part of the insula and is separated from it by the posterior part of the circular sulcus of the insula. Its anterior part is smooth and it widens itself posteriorly forming one or two deep pli de passage also identified as the retro-insular region of Broca or transverse gyri of Heschl.
  2. Middle temporal gyrus
    Gyrus temporalis medius (Ecker)
    Gyrus temporal moyen
    Giro temporal medial
    A14.1.09.146
    THA:6027
    Dejerine: (p277) deuxième circonvolution temporale [T2]
    The middle temporal gyrus is badly demarcated from the inferior temporal gyrus by the inferior temporal sulcus. It is more often clearly separated from the superior temporal gyrus by the superior temporal sulcus. Anteriorly and on the inferior surface of the hemisphere, the three temporal gyri share a common origin at the level of the temporal pole. Posteriorly, the middle temporal gyrus extends into the angular gyrus and contributes to form with the second occipital gyrus the descending branch of the angular gyrus.
  3. Inferior temporal gyrus (Ecker)
    Gyrus temporalis inferior
    Gyrus temporal inférieur
    Giro temporal inferior
    A14.1.09.148
    THA:6029
    Dejerine: (p277)  Troisième circonvolution temporale (Broca) [T3]
    The inferior temporal Gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus form a rectangular-shaped lobular mass that extends from the temporal pole to the pre-occipital notch of Meynert. They are linked by two or three plis de passage and more or less duplicated by the inferior temporal sulcus. The inferior temporal gyrus overlaps the inferior margin of the hemisphere. It is usually clearly delimited by the occipito-temporal sulcus that separates it from the lateral occipito-temporal gyrus or fusiform gyrus on the inferior face of the hemisphere.
  4. Transverse temporal gyri; Set of transverse temporal gyri
    Gyri temporales transversi; Classis gyrorum temporalium transversorum
    Groupe des gyrus temporaux transverse
    Giros temporales transversos
    A14.1.09.140
    THA:6021
    Dejerine: (p 248; 278-279) Région retro-insulaire (Retro-insular region) [Tp]
    The set of transverse temporal gyri corresponds to the retro-insular region. It includes one and sometimes up to three gyri. The anterior gyrus is a permanent structure oblique superiorly and posteriorly. It is a deep temporo-parietal pli de passage that is also called anterior transverse temporal gyrus or Heschl’s gyrus. The posterior gyrus that is far more variable in volume and shape is most of the time the splitting of the anterior gyrus. The deep temporal sulcus, or transverse temporal sulcus separates the retro-insular region from the supramarginal gyrus.
  5. Anterior transverse temporal gyrus
    Gyrus temporalis transversus anterior
    Gyrus temporal transverse antérieur
    Giro temporal transverso anterior
    A14.1.09.141
    THA:6022
    Cf retro-insular region of Broca or gyrus transverses of Heschl 
  6. Posterior transverse temporal gyrus
    Gyrus temporalis transversus posterior
    Gyrus temporal transverse postérieur
    Giro temporal transverso posterior
    A14.1.09.142
    THA:6023
    Cf retro-insular region of Broca or gyrus transverses of Heschl 
  7. Planum polare

    Plan polaire
    Does not exist according to Dejerine but would belong to the temporal operculumPlan polaireDoes not exist according to Dejerine but would belong to the temporal operculum

  8. Planum temporale
    Temporal plane
    Plan temporal
    Plano temporal
    A14.1.09.143
    THA:6024
    Does not exist according to Dejerine but would belong to the retro insular region. The temporal plane corresponds to the dorso-medial surface of the superior temporal gyrus that is located in the retroinsular region of Broca. It extends up to the end of the lateral sulcus, behind the transverse temporal gyri.                                                   Described by Pfeifer in 1920 and Van Economo and Horn in 1930, its limits are subject to debate. Anteriorly, some authors include the posterior transverse gyrus into the temporal plane. Its posterior limit depends on the definition of the end of the lateral sulcus.
  9. Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus; fusiform gyrus

    Gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis
    Gyrus occipito-temporal latéral
    Giro occipitotemporal lateral
    A14.1.09.227
    THA: 6063
    Dejerine: (p292; 295) lobule fusiforme   première circonvolution temporo-occipital (Charcot, Pozzi); Gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis (Pansch, Ecker) [Fus]
    According to Dejerine, the fusiform gyrus is part of the occipital and temporal lobe; it is the only one that deserves the right to be called occipito-temporal gyrus. It is described by Dejerine with the occipital lobe and called fusiform gyrus.

  10. Medial occipitotemporal gyrus
    Gyrus occiptotemporalis medialis
    Gyrus occipito-temporal médial
    Giro occipitotemporal medial
    A14.1.09.228
    THA:6064
    Dejerine: (p 295)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The lingual gyrus corresponds for Pansch and Ecker, to the medial occipitotemporal gyrus. According to Dejerine, the lingual gyrus belongs only to the occipital lobe. The lingual gyrus according to some authors, is included in the medial occipito-temporal gyrus. This later should be subdivided into the parahippocampal gyrus and the lingual gyrus. The lingual gyrus forms a well-defined lobule that only belongs to the occipital lobe whereas the parahippocampal gyrus belongs to the limbic lobe of Broca.

SULCI

  1. Superior temporal sulcus

    Sulcus temporalis superior (Ecker)
    Sillon temporal supérieur
    Surco temporal superior
    A14.1.09.145
    THA:6026
    Dejerine (P 275) sillon parallèle, premier sillon temporal (Broca), or sulcus temporalis superior (Ecker) [t1]
    The superior temporal sulcus is constant and starting from the anterior part of the temporal lobe; its course is posterior and parallel to the posterior ramus of lateral sulcus. It forms the axis of the angular gyrus. It presents numerous variations. At the base of the angular gyrus it might sometimes be split into a superior branch that forms the axis of the angular gyrus and an inferior branch forming the anterior occipital sulcus of Wernicke. It separates the middle temporal gyrus from the superior temporal gyrus.

  2. Inferior temporal sulcus
    Sulcus temporalis inferior
    Sillon temporal inférieur
    Surco temporal inferior
    A14.1.09.147
    THA:6028
    Dejerine: (p276) deuxième sillon temporal (Broca); Sulcus temporalis medius (Ecker) [t2]
    The inferior temporal sulcus of the terminologia anatomica corresponds to the second temporal sulcus of Broca or the middle temporal sulcus of Ecker. It separates the middle temporal gyrus from the inferior temporal gyrus. It is parallel to and with the same direction (of) as the superior temporal sulcus. It is cut by two or three plis de passage.
  3. Transverse temporal sulcus
    Sulcus temporalis transversus
    Sillon temporal transverse
    Surco temporal transverso
    A14.1.09.144
    THA:6025
    Dejerine: (p278) Sillon temporal transverse; Sillon temporal profond
    The transverse temporal sulcus separates the retro insular region from the supramarginal gyrus that is a veritable superficial parieto-temporal pli de passage. It can be seen on the lateral surface of the superior temporal gyrus from where it extends sometimes together with the ascending branch of the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. The inferior end of the transverse temporal sulcus cuts more or less deeply the superior surface of the superior temporal gyrus. This end may extend to the lateral surface of the temporal gyrus and reach the superior temporal sulcus that seems then to flow into the lateral sulcus whereas the superior temporal gyrus continues directly into the retro-insular region.
  4. Occipitotemporal sulcus
    SSulcus occipitotemporalis
    Sillon occipito-temporal
    Surco occipitotemporal
    A14.1.09.229
    THA : 6065
    Dejerine: (p 271) Troisième sillon temporal (Broca); Première scissure temporo-occipitale (Pansch); Sulcus temporalis inferior sive tertius (Ecker) [t3]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The occipitotemporal sulcus corresponds for Dejerine to the third temporal sulcus of Broca or the inferior temporal sulcus of Ecker. On the inferior surface of the temporal lobe, it separates the three temporal gyri of the lateral surface from the fusiform gyrus or lateral temporo-occipital gyrus. It does not extend as far as the temporal pole and ends at the pre-occipital notch (of Schwalbe). There is sometimes a pli de passage linking the inferior temporal gyrus to the occipital lobe and separating the occipitotemporal sulcus from the preoccipital notch.
  5. Temporal notch
    Dejerine: (p298) incisure temporale de Schwalbe or sillon pre-uncique de Brissau
    The temporal pole extends anteriorly beyond the uncus where one can always find a pli de passage more or less deeply notched by the temporal notch.
  6. Collateral sulcus
    sulcus collateralis
    Sillon collatéral
    Surco collateral
    A14.1.09.206
    THA:6042
    Dejerine: (P 289) scissure collatérale [ot]
    Constant and deep, the collateral sulcus begins posteriorly at the occipital pole and ends towards the anterior end of the temporal lobe without reaching the temporal pole. The posterior half of the collateral sulcus is parallel to the calcarine sulcus and separates the lingual lobule from the fusiform gyrus (lateral occipitotemporal gyrus). The second half of the collateral sulcus separates the parahippocampal gyrus from the fusiform gyrus (lateral occipitotemporal gyrus). It is sometimes broke off by the temporo-limbic pli de passage that connects the limbic lobe to the fusiform gyrus.

07- OCCIPITAL LOBE (V1-2018)

  1. List of the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations [] and Gillet’s Drawings (p310-311).

    Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels [])

  2. Occipital lobe (occipital pole) [O]
      Gyri
      1.    First occipital gyrus  [O1]
      2.    Internal portion of the first occipital gyrus or cuneus. [C]
              o   Is internal and superior pariéto-occipital crossing fold (“pli de passage” or annectant gyrus) [πpoi]
      3.    Second occipital gyrus [O2]
      4.    Third occipital gyrus [O3]
      5.    Descending occipital gyrus [D]
      6.    Lingual  gyrus [Lg]
                  o   Cuneo-lingual crossing folds (“plis de passage” or annectant gyri) [πclg]
      7.    Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus (fusiform gyrus) [Fus]
      Sulci
      1.    Anterior occipital sulcus  [oa]
      2.    Pre-occipital sulcus (preoccipital notch) [ipo]
      3.    Parieto-occipital sulcus [po]
      4.    Calcarine sulcus [K]
              o   Superior spur [K’]
              o   Inferior spur [K’’]
              o   Calcarine and parietooccipital sulci common branch [K+po]
      5.    Inter-occipital sulcus  [io
      6.    Transverse occipital sulcus [o2]
      7.    Third occipital sulcus [o3]
      8.    Sulcus of the cuneus [c]
      9.    Sulcus of the lingual gyrus  [lg]
      10. Collateral sulcus [ot]
      11. Lunate sulcus (added by the authors)
  3. Occipital lobe
    Lobus occipitalis
    Lobe occipital
    Lóbulo occipital
    A14.1.09.132
    THA : 6013
    Dejerine : (p 269-270) Lobe occipital
    The occipital lobe is in the form of a three-sided pyramid; its posterior extremity is the occipital pole of Broca, whereas its base, that is anterior, is ill-defined. One of its surfaces is lateral and convex, another is medial and plane and the third surface is inferior and slightly concave. The lateral surface of the occipital lobe communicates extensively with the parietal and temporal lobes, being more or less continuous with them. Its inferior surface merges without any clear distinction with the inferior surface of the temporal lobe to constitute the temporo-occipital region.  This medial surface of the occipital lobe is only well delimitated where the parieto-occipital sulcus separates it from the precuneus. The lateral surface is separated superiorly from the parietal lobe by a notch that constitutes the external perpendicular sulcus (a continuation of the parieto-occipital sulcus on the lateral surface of the brain). Inferiorly, it is separated from the temporal lobe by another notch, the pre-occipital notch (of Meynert).
  4. Occipital pole
    Polus occipitalis
    Pôle occipital
    Polo occipital
    A14.1.09.133
    THA : 6013
    Dejerine : (p 270) Pôle occipital
    The occipital pole (Broca) corresponds to the posterior extremity of the cerebral hemisphere and to the apex of the triangular shaped pyramid that is the occipital lobe.

GYRI

  1. First occipital gyrus
    Premier gyrus occipital
    Dejerine : (p 272) Première circonvolution occipital; [O1]
    The first occipital gyrus is located above the intraparietal sulcus. It forms the lateral surface of the cuneus and extends from the external perpendicular sulcus (a continuation of the parieto-occipital sulcus on the lateral surface of the brain) to the transverse occipital sulcus. Its anterior part connects with the superior parietal lobule and forms the first parieto-occipital pli de passage of Gratiolet. It is separated from the angular gyrus (or second pli de passage of Gratiolet) by the intraparietal sulcus. Beyond its connection with the superior parietal lobule, the first occipital gyrus extends inferiorly and posteriorly along the longitudinal cerebral fissure to turn round the posterior end of the transverse occipital sulcus where it meets the “descending” gyrus (of Ecker).
  2. Cuneus
    Cuneus
    Cunéus
    Cuña
    A14.1.09.224
    THA : 6060
    Dejerine : (p 292) Cunéus; [C]
    The cuneus is part of the occipital lobe. It is a triangular shaped lobule bounded by the calcarine sulcus and the parieto-occipital sulcus that join together forming an acute angle.
  3. Second occipital gyrus
    Deuxième gyrus occipital
    Dejerine (p 274) Deuxième circonvolution occipitale; [O2]
    The second occipital gyrus is bounded posteriorly by the inter-occipital sulcus, anteriorly lay by the anterior occipital sulcus, and inferiorily by the second occipital sulcus. Anteriorly and superiorly, it extends the angular gyrus that is also known as the second external pli de passage to form its posterior branch. The angular gyrus has often a complex shape; it may be divided by one or more superficial sulci or it may cut the anterior occipital sulcus to join the middle temporal gyrus and form the third external pli de passage. The second occipital gyrus is "S" shaped. At its origin it forms the posterior descending branch of the angular gyrus. Subsequently, it runs posteriorly, curving around the second occipital sulcus and the extremity of the internal part of the inter-occipital sulcus, to end at the gyrus descendens (Ecker).
  4. Third occipital gyrus
    Troisième gyrus occipital
    Dejerine (p 274) Troisième circonvolution occipitale; [O3]
    The third occipital gyrus is a small anteroposterior gyrus that contributes to the inferior margin of the cerebral hemisphere. It straddles both the lateral and inferior surfaces of the hemisphere and is separated from the second occipital gyrus by the second occipital sulcus. It is separated from the lingual gyrus by the third occipital sulcus. Posteriorly it joins the gyrus descendens (Ecker) whereas anteriorly it continues together with the middle temporal gyrus crossing the anterior occipital sulcus. In other cases, it curves around the pre-occipital notch to connect with the inferior temporal gyrus, forming the fourth lateral pli de passage (of Gratiolet).
  5. Ascending occipital gyrus
    Gyrus descendens
    Gyrus occipital descendant
    Dejerine : (p 274) Circonvolution occipitale descendante; gyrus descendens (Ecker); [D]
    The descending occipital gyrus, or gyrus descendens of Ecker, occupies the most posterior end of the occipital lobe. It is the common origin of the three occipital gyri. It surrounds the spurs of the calcarine sulcus and continues with the lingual gyrus onto the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere.
  6. Lingual gyrus
    Gyrus linguali
    Gyrus lingual
    Giro lingual
    A14.1.09.226
    THA : 6062
    Dejerine : (p 292) Lobule lingual ; Seconde circonvolution temporo-occipitale (Charcot, Pozzi). Gyrus occipitotemporalis medialis (Pansch, Ecker); [Lg]
    The lingual gyrus straddles the internal and inferior surface of the cerebral hemisphere. It is tap-shaped, wide posteriorly and narrow anteriorly. It is located between the calcarine sulcus (that isolates it from the cuneus) and the posterior or occipital end of the collateral sulcus (that isolates it from the fusiform gyrus). It extends anteriorly from the occipital pole, where it forms the internal surface of the second and third occipital gyri, up to the splenium of the corpus callosum. Here, it diminishes substantially and connects with the parahippocampal gyrus via the retro limbic pli de passage of Broca, that is generally superficial. The lingual gyrus consistently has a sulcus, the sulcus of the lingual gyrus that is antero-posteriorly orientated and sinuous to a greater or lesser degree.
  7. Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus
    Gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis
    Gyrus occipito-temporal latéral
    Giro occipitotemporal lateral
    A14.1.09.227
    THA:6063
    Dejerine : (p 295) Lobule fusiforme ; première circonvolution temporo-occipitale (Charcot, Pozzi) ; Gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis (Pansch, Ecker); [Fus]
    Thin at both ends and thicker in its middle part, this gyrus is bounded medially by the collateral sulcus and laterally by the inferior temporal sulcus. The lateral occipitotemporal gyrus is appropriately named the fusiform gyrus on account of its shape and the lateral occipitotemporal gyrus on account of its location. It is the only gyrus that belongs both to the temporal lobe and occipital lobe. Superficial notches often split the fusiform gyrus. Posteriorly, it does not reach the occipital pole but it usually curves around the posterior end of the collateral sulcus and merges with the third occipital gyrus. It does not extend as far as the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe and remains apart from it by two to three centimetres. The fusiform gyrus is however part of the inferior surface of the temporal pole, where it merges with the superior and middle temporal gyri. The collateral sulcus circumscribes the fusiform gyrus medially and separates it from the lingual lobule posteriorly and from the parahippocampal gyrus anteriorly. The collateral sulcus is often disrupted in that area by the temporo-limbic pli de passage of Broca that connects the fusiform gyrus to the parahippocampal gyrus. Laterally, the fusiform gyrus merges with the inferior temporal gyrus through numerous pli de passage but remains separated from it by the occipitotemporal sulcus (a superficial sulcus frequently disrupted). When present the preoccipital notch of Meynert is connected to the occipitotemporal sulcus, the preoccipital notch separates the occipital lobe from the temporal lobe

SULCI

  1. Anterior occipital sulcus of Wernicke
    Sillon occipital antérieur
    Dejerine: (p 276) Sillon occipital antérieur de Wernicke; [oa]                                                                                                                                                              The superior branch of the superior temporal sulcus (parallel sulcus of Dejerine) sometimes splits off; its posterior branch is located as an extension of the parietooccipital sulcus and often continues inferiorly with the anterior occipital sulcus of Wernicke to form the anterior limit of the occipital lobe. There is sometimes a pli de passage between the middle temporal gyrus and the second occipital gyrus. This being the case, the anterior occipital sulcus is missing.
  2. Pre-occipital sulcus

    Sillon pré-occipital
    Dejerine : Sillon pré-occipital de Meynert; [ipo]
    The preoccipital notch of Meynert sometimes forms a real sulcus, the preoccipital sulcus of Meynert.

  3. Preoccipital notch

    Incisura preoccipitalis
    Incisure pré-occipitale
    Incisura preoccipital
    A14.1.09.109
    THA : 5990
    Dejerine : (p270) Incisure pré-occipitale, sillon pré-occipital; [ipo]
    The lateral surface of the occipital lobe is separated inferiorly by a notch the preoccipital notch of Meynert. On its lateral surface, it sometimes forms the preoccipital sulcus of Meynert.

  4. Parieto-occipital sulcus

    Sulcus parietooccipitalis
    Sillon pariéto-occipital
    Surco parieto-occipital
    A14.1.09.108
    THA : 5989
    Dejerine: (p 284) Scissure pariéto-occipitale. [po]
    The parieto-occipital sulcus consists of two parts, an external part representing the external perpendicular sulcus of Gratiolet that forms a simple notch on the lateral surface of the hemisphere, and an internal part constituting the actual parieto-occipital sulcus (or internal perpendicular sulcus of Gratiolet). On the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere, the internal part of the parieto-occipital sulcus constitutes the anterior limit of the occipital lobe and separates the cuneus from the pre-cuneus and the posterior part of the limbic lobe. Running obliquely, it continues inferiorly and anteriorly to merge with the calcarine sulcus at a sharp angle. It cuts more or less deeply the narrow part of the limbic lobe named the isthmus of the cingulate gyrus located below the splenium of the corpus callosum. 

  5. Calcarine sulcus

    Sulcus calcarinus
    Sillon calcarin
    Surco calcarino
    A14.1.09.225
    THA : 6061
    Dejerine : (p 285) Scissure calcarine (Broca) Son éperon supérieur ; Son éperon inférieur ; Branche commune aux scissures calcarine et pariétooccipitale. [K]    
    The calcarine sulcus is a horizontal and very deep fissure belonging to the occipital lobe. It merges with the parieto-occipital sulcus at an acute angle and together delimits a triangular shaped lobule, the cuneus. The calcarine sulcus extends from the occipital pole to the splenium of the corpus callosum and separates the cuneus from the lingual lobule. Generally, it begins very close to the occipital pole and has the shape of a double spur. This spur sometimes encroaches upon the lateral surface of the lobe. When the superior spur is missing, the calcarine sulcus is then reduced, at its origin, to the inferior spur. From there, it runs medially with varying degrees of pronounced twists to merge with the parieto-occipital sulcus above the cuneo-limbic pli de passage. The branch, common to the calcarine sulcus and parieto-occipital sulcus, runs obliquely inferiorly and notches more or less deeply the limbic lobe at the level of the isthmus of the cingulate gyrus. However, regardless of its appearance, it never reaches the hippocampal sulcus. The calcarine sulcus depresses the medial wall of the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle, forming the calcarine spur.   

  6. Inter-occipital sulcus

    Dejerine : (p 271-272) Sillon inter-occipital ; Premier sillon occipital ; Sillon occipital supérieur (Ecker); [io]
    The Inter-occipital sulcus is nothing other than the continuation of the intraparietal sulcus within the occipital lobe. It extends the curved route of the intraparietal sulcus and ends sometimes at the level of the second occipital sulcus or tranverse occipital sulcus. However, it generally runs beyond this sulcus, crossing it at right angle to form with it a star-shaped sulcus that stretches out up to the extremity of the occipital lobe. It divides the occipital lobe into two parts, the superior and posterior part corresponding to the first occipital gyrus or the lateral surface of the cuneus and the anterior and inferior part comprising the second and third occipital gyri and the connections of these two gyri with the angular gyrus. 

  7. Transverse occipital sulcus

    Sulcus occipitalis transversus
    Sillon occipital transverse
    Surco occipital transverso
    A14.1.09.135
    THA : 6016
    Dejerine : (p 272) Sillon occipital transverse ; deuxième sillon occipital; [o2]
    The transverse occipital sulcus is an antero-posterior sulcus separating the first and the second occipital gyri. It crosses the inter-occipital sulcus often at right angle and goes in the direction of the horizontal part of the superior temporal sulcus.

  8. Third occipital sulcus

    Dejerine: (p 272) Troisième sillon occipital; sillon occipital moyen (Schwalbe); sillon occipital inférieur (Ecker); [o3]
    The third occipital sulcus, or middle occipital sulcus (Schwalbe) or inferior occipital sulcus (Ecker), is a small superficial antero-posterior sulcus that separates the second occipital gyrus from the third one. It goes anteriorly towards the inferior temporal sulcus and the occipitotemporal sulcus and constitutes, in most cases, the inferior margin of the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. In some cases, it is part of the inferior surface of the hemisphere.

  9. Sulcus of the cuneus

    Sillon du cunéus
    Dejerine : (p 292) sillon du cunéus; [c]
    The Sulcus of the cuneus is the deepest among the superficial sulci that irregularly divide the surface of the cuneus. It is generally anteroposteriorly oriented.

  10. Sulcus of the lingual gyrus

    Sillon du gyrus lingual
    Dejerine : (p 293-94) Sillon du lobule lingual; [lg]
    The sulcus of the lingual gyrus is a constant and more or less sinuous sulcus in an anteroposterior direction. It divides the lingual gyrus into a superior gyrus and an inferior gyrus. This sulcus is located at the junction of the internal surface and the inferior surface of the cerebral hemisphere. Parallel to the calcarine sulcus, it is deep posteriorly and joins the collateral sulcus anteriorly immediately below the retrolimbic pli e passage of Broca. This sulcus sometimes splits the lingual gyrus into two retrolimbic plis de passage, a superior one being generally superficial and an inferior one deep. In this case, the lingual gyrus is linked to the limbic lobe by two plis de passage.

  11. Occipitotemporal sulcus

    Sulcus occipitotemporalis
    Sillon occipito-temporal
    Surco occipitotemporal
    A14.1.09.229
    THA : 6065
    Dejerine: (p 271) Troisième sillon temporal (Broca); Première scissure temporo-occipitale (Pansch); Sulcus temporalis inferior sive tertius (Ecker); [t3]
    The occipitotemporal sulcus corresponds for Dejerine to the inferior temporal sulcus or third temporal sulcus of Broca. On the inferior surface of the temporal lobe, it separates the three temporal gyri on the lateral surface from the fusiform gyrus or lateral temporo-occipital gyrus. It does not extend as far as the temporal pole and ends at the pre-occipital notch (of Schwalbe). There is sometimes a pli de passage linking the inferior temporal gyrus to the occipital lobe and separating the occipitotemporal sulcus from the preoccipital notch.

  12. Collateral sulcus

    Sulcus collateralis
    Sillon collatéral
    Surco collateral
    A14.1.09.206
    THA:6042
    Dejerine: (P 289) scissure collatérale, scissure occipito-temporale (p 125); [ot]
    Constant and deep, the collateral sulcus begins posteriorly at the occipital pole and ends towards the anterior end of the temporal lobe without reaching the temporal pole. The posterior half of the collateral sulcus is parallel to the calcarine sulcus and separates the lingual lobule from the fusiform gyrus (lateral occipitotemporal gyrus). The second half of the collateral sulcus separates the parahippocampal gyrus from the fusiform gyrus (lateral occipitotemporal gyrus). It sometimes broke off by the temporo-limbic pli de passage that connects the limbic lobe to the fusiform gyrus.

  13. Lunate sulcus

    Sulcus lunatus
    Sillon semilunaire
    Surco semi lunar
    A14.1.09.134
    THA : 6015
    Dejerine: (p 271) Fente simienne; simian sulcus - Lunate sulcus
    For apes such as the chimpanzee or the orang-outang, the perpendicular external sulcus (that is the continuation of the parieto-occipital sulcus on the lateral surface of the brain) merges with the anterior occipital sulcus, runs along the whole lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere and separates clearly the occipital lobe from the parietal and temporal lobe. It is therefore the reason why the external perpendicular sulcus is named the simian sulcus.



    08- LIMBIC LOBE (V1-2018)

    1. List of the chapters with Dejerine’s abbreviations [] and Gillet’s Drawings (p310-311).

      Dejerine (p310) (Authors’ translation and adaptation with Dejerine’ labels [])

    2. Great limbic lobe of Broca (p311) [L]
      Gyri
      1.    Cingulate gyrus [L1]
              o   Isthmus of cingulate gyrus [L(i)]
              o   Olfactory area [CB]
      2.    Parahippocampal gyrus [H(L2)]
              o   Subcallosal gyrus or area [Csc]
              o   Uncus [U]
      plis de passage
              o   Frontolimbic pli de passage [πfl]
              o   Anterior parietolimbic pli de passage [πpla]
              o   Posterior parietolimbic pli de passage [πplp]
              o   Cuneolimbic pli de passage [πcl]
              o   Retrolimbic pli de passage [πrl]
              o   Temporolimbic pli de passage [πtl]
      3. Dentate gyrus [Cg]
              o   Band of Giacomini. [BG]  Uncus band of Giacomini
              o   Fasciolar gyrus [Fc]
              o   Taenia tecta [tec]
              o   Indusium griseum [NL]
              o   Geniculate gyrus  [Cgn]
              o   Diagonal band (of Broca) [bd]
      4- Olfactory lobe
          1.    Anterior olfactory lobule [Lola]
              o   Olfactory bulb [Bol]
              o   Olfactory peduncle [Pol]
              o   Olfactory tubercle [Tol]
              o   Olfactory striae - lateral stria [Role]
              o   Olfactory striae - medial stria [Roli]
              o Olfactory area of Broca [CB]
          2.    Posterior olfactory lobule [Lolp]
              o   Anterior perforated substance [Epa; Spa]
              o   Diagonal band [bd]
      Sulci
      1. Cingulate sulcus or callosomarginal sulcus [cm]
              o   marginal sulcus [cm’]
      2. Subparietal sulcus [sp]
      3. Intra-limbic sulcus. [l]
      4. Sulcus of corpus callosum [scc]
      5. Hippocampal sulcus  [h]
      6. Fimbriodentate sulcus [fg]
      7. Sillon primaire (Incisura prima of His) [fp]
      8. Sillon tardif (fissura serotina of His) [fs]

    3. Limbic lobe

      Lobus limbicus
      Lobe limbique
      Lóbulo limbico
      A14.1.09.230
      THA:6066
      Dejerine: (P126-127, 296) Grand lobe limbique de Broca. Rhinencephalon de Turner.
      The limbic lobe consists of two arcs, superior and inferior arcs, that converge anteriorly to become a part of the olfactory lobe. The superior (or frontoparietal) arc runs along the convex surface of the corpus callosum for its entire extent. The superior arc is referred to as the cingulate gyrus. The inferior arc curves around the cerebral peduncle and forms the parahippocampal gyrus. Rostrally, the superior and inferior arcs are completed by the olfactory lobe. The olfactory striae, lateral stria and medial stria, curve around the anterior perforated substance. The medial stria merges with the cingulate gyrus, whereas the lateral stria projects into the parahippocampal gyrus. Laterally, posteriorly and inferiorly, the limbic lobe is bounded by the limbic fissure. In humans, the limbic fissure differentiates into superiorly the cingulate sulcus (or callosomarginal sulcus), and the subparietal sulcus, posteriorly the common branch of the calcarine sulcus and of the parieto-occipital sulcus and inferiorly the collateral sulcus. Internally, the limbic lobe is bounded by the sulcus of the corpus callosum and by the hippocampal sulcus. When considering the “Great limbic lobe of Broca”, Dejerine includes five elements:
      1. The cingulate gyrus or first limbic gyrus
      2. The parahippocampal gyrus or second limbic gyrus
      3. The hippocampal sulcus and the sulcus of the corpus callosum
      4. The dentate gyrus or intralimbic gyrus
      5. The olfactory lobe (i.e. the olfactory structures).


    GYRI

    1. Cingulate gyrus
      Gyrus cinguli
      Gyrus cingulaire
      Giro cingular
      A14.1.09.231
      THA:6067
      Dejerine: (p297) Première circonvolution limbique, circonvolution du corps calleux.
      The cingulate gyrus is narrow at its origin below the genu of the corpus callosum where it merges with the olfactory area of Broca and increases in width along its course. Posteriorly, it turns around the genu and the body of the corpus callosum. At the level to the genu of the corpus callosum, the cingulate gyrus usually displays a protruding fold (a ridge or a crest), which provides an anchorage to the frontolimbic pli de passage. At the level of the posterior part of the corpus callosum, the cingulate gyrus shows three additional protruding folds. The first protruding fold corresponds to the paracentral lobule and the two remaining folds are associated with the precuneus. These later serve as anchorage to the parietolimbic pli de passage that might be very deep for the anterior parietolimbic pli de passage but usually superficial for the posterior parietolimbic pli de passage. Posteriorly and below the splenium of the corpus callosum, the cingulate gyrus is deeply cut by the sulcus connecting the calcarine sulcus and parieto-occipital sulcus. At that point, the cingulate gyrus becomes considerably narrower and forms what is called the isthmus of the cingulate gyrus. This isthmus connects the cingulate gyrus to the parahippocampal gyrus (or the second limbic gyrus). The isthmus is always present, but might be located superficial or deep.
    2. Isthmus
      Isthmus
      Isthme
      Isthmo del giro cingular
      A14.1.09.232 isthmus gyri cinguli
      THA:6068
      Dejerine : (p297) Isthme du lobe limbique ou isthme antécalcarinien.
      The isthmus of the cingulate gyrus is located posteriorly and below the splenium of the corpus callosum. The cingulate gyrus is deeply notched by the common branch of the calcarine sulcus with the parieto-occipital sulcus. At that point, the cingulate gyrus becomes considerably narrower and forms the isthmus of cingulate gyrus (antecalcarine isthmus). This isthmus, which links the cingulate gyrus to the parahippocampal gyrus, is constant and sometimes is located in a deep position. The isthmus is less than half a centimeter thick. Two important pli de passage are connected to it, a deep one (the cuneolimbic pli de passage) and a more superficial one (the retro-limbic or occipitohippocampal pli de passage (of Broca)) that links the limbic lobe to the lingual lobule.
    3. Olfactory area of Broca
      Dejerine (p128; 306) Carrefour olfactif de Broca [CB]
      The olfactory area of Broca is a small area located on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and below the rostrum of the corpus callosum. It is bounded posteriorly by the notch of His that is continuous with the “primary sulcus”. The “secondary sulcus, or fissura serotina of His” demarcates it inferiorly and is often concealed behind a pli de passage. A slight, but consistent, depression lies at that level, that is related to the anterior cerebral artery when it moves from the anterior perforated substance. The olfactory area of Broca continues anteriorly with the medial frontal gyrus and posteriorly with the cingulate gyrus. Inferiorly and posteriorly, it receives the medial olfactory stria. Inferiorly and anteriorly, it receives the diagonal band of Broca. Between the medial olfactory stria and the diagonal band of Broca, the olfactory area of Broca is directly connected inferiorly to the medial part of the anterior perforated substance.
    4. Parahippocampal gyrus
      Gyrus parahippocampalis
      Gyrus parahippocampique
      Giro parahippocampal
      A14.1.09.234
      THA:6070
      Dejerine: (P 298; 305, 309) Deuxième circonvolution limbique, circonvolution de l'hippocampe.
      Posteriorly, the parahippocampal gyrus is a continuation of the isthmus of the cingulate gyrus. It begins with a thick extremity that passes deeply beneath the splenium of the corpus callosum and continues thereafter inferiorly and anteriorly up to the base of the brain, running along the cerebral peduncle. At the base of the brain, and more particularly at the level of the anterior perforated substance, the parahippocampal gyrus bulges and gets thicker to form the uncus. Externally, the parahippocampal gyrus is bordered by the collateral sulcus that separates it from the fusiform gyrus (or lateral occipitotemporal gyrus). The parahippocampal gyrus is sometimes linked to the fusiform gyrus anteriorly, by a superficial pli de passage called the temporolimbic pli de passage of Broca. The parahippocampal gyrus is linked posteriorly with the lingual gyrus. According to Broca, the parahippocampal gyrus is part of the temporal lobe and he termed it the fifth temporal gyrus [T5]. (p309). According to Dejerine, the structure of the cortex of the second limbic gyrus varies according to whether the cortex belongs to the subiculum or whether the cortex bulges in the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle to form Ammon’s horn.
    5. Ascending occipital gyrus
      Gyrus descendens
      Gyrus occipital descendant
      Dejerine : (p 274) Circonvolution occipitale descendante; gyrus descendens (Ecker); [D]
      The descending occipital gyrus, or gyrus descendens of Ecker, occupies the most posterior end of the occipital lobe. It is the common origin of the three occipital gyri. It surrounds the spurs of the calcarine sulcus and continues with the lingual gyrus onto the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere.
    6. Hippocampus
      Hippocampus
      Hippocampe
      Hipocampo
      A14.1.09.321
      THA: 6144
      Hippocampus proper; Ammon’s horn
      Hippocampus proprius; Cornu ammonis
      Hippocampe proprement dite; Corne d’Ammon
      Hipocampo proprio; Asta de Ammon
      A14.1.09.327
      THA:6150
      Dejerine does not identify the Hippocampus. The gyrus of the hippocampus is the second limbic gyrus. According to Dejerine, the structure of the cortex of the second limbic gyrus varies depending on whether the cortex belongs to the subiculum or whether the cortex bulges into the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle to form the Ammon’s horn. The dentate gyrus is part of the intralimbic gyrus. The hippocampal sulcus separates the subiculum from Ammon’s horn. In modern terminology, the subiculum is part of the parahippocampal gyrus and Ammon’s horn and the dentate gyrus are part of the hippocampus proper.
    7. Subiculum
      Subiculum
      Subiculum
      Subículo
      A14.1.09.327
      THA: 6149
      Dejerine (p701)  Subiculum de la corne d'Ammon.
      The Subiculum is the component of the cortex of the parahippocampal gyrus that is continuous with the fusiform gyrus and that forms the medial lip of the collateral sulcus.
    8. Medial occipitotemporal gyrus
      Gyrus occiptotemporalis medialis
      Gyrus occipito-temporal médial
      Giro occipitotemporal medial
      A14.1.09.228
      THA:6064
      Dejerine (p292)
      According to Pansch and Ecker, the lingual gyrus corresponds to the medial occipitotemporal gyrus. According to Dejerine, however, the lingual gyrus belongs only to the occipital lobe. The lingual gyrus that, according to some authors, is included in the parahippocampal gyrus (and named medial occipitotemporal gyrus) should be subdivided. The lingual gyrus forms a well-defined lobule that only belongs to the occipital lobe whereas the parahippocampal gyrus belongs to the limbic lobe of Broca.
    9. Uncus
      Uncus
      Uncus
      Uncus; gancho
      A14.1.09.235
      THA:6071
      Dejerine (p298) uncus, pli unciforme, gyrus uncinatus                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The parahippocampal gyrus bends abruptly posteriorly and embeds the anterior end of the hippocampal sulcus to form the ‘hook’ known by a variety of names, including: uncus, pli unciforme, gyrus uncinatus. The posterior end of the uncus adheres to the crus of the fornix whereas the terminal velum of Aeby inserts itself into the medial surface of the uncus. The terminal velum of Aeby is a grey strip, which closes the anterior extremity of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle.
    10. Plis de passage
      Frontolimbic pli de passage [πfl]
      At the level to the genu of the corpus callosum, the cingulate gyrus usually has a protruding fold (a ridge or a crest), which provides an anchorage to the frontolimbic pli de passage.

      Anterior parietolimbic pli de passage [πpla]
      Two folds of the cingulate gyrus are linked with the precuneus. These folds serve as anchorage to the parietolimbic plis de passage. The anterior parietolimbic pli de passage is usually very deep.

      Posterior parietolimbic pli de passage [πplp]
      Two folds of the cingulate gyrus are linked with the precuneus. These folds serve as anchorage to the parietolimbic plis de passage. The posterior parietolimbic pli de passage is usually superficial.
      .
      Cuneolimbic pli de passage [πcl]
      The cuneolimbic pli de passage connects the cuneus to the isthmus. It is a deep pli de passage.

      Retrolimbic pli de passage [πrl]
      The retro-limbic or occipitohippocampal pli de passage (of Broca) is superficial . The retro-limbic or occipitohippocampal pli de passage links the limbic lobe (isthmus) to the lingual lobule.

      Temporolimbic pli de passage [πtl]
      The parahippocampal gyrus is sometimes linked to the fusiform gyrus anteriorly, by a superficial pli de passage, called the temporolimbic pli de passage (of Broca).
    11. Dentate gyrus
      Gyrus dentatus
      Gyrus denté
      Giro dentado
      A14.1.09.237, A14.1.09.339
      THA: 6073
      Dejerine: (p301-303; p128)  circonvolution godronnée ; circonvolution intralimbique;
      fascia dentata ; corps godronné ; gyrus dentatus (Huxley).
      The dentate gyrus forms a small, (ill-defined) gyrus that occupies the floor of the hippocampal sulcus. On the medial and inferior surface of the cerebral hemisphere, it forms the margin of the cerebral cortex. The dentate gyrus is deeply located within the hippocampal sulcus. It can only be visualised when the parahippocampal gyrus is turned down and the covering fimbria of hippocampus is removed. The dentate gyrus has the appearance of a greyish cord that follows exactly the curvature of the subiculum. The internal surface of the dentate gyrus shows fifteen to twenty vertical notches that divide it into as many small protrusions. The dentate gyrus begins anteriorly as a small, narrow, flat strip of ‘gelatinous’ appearance and with an ashen-gray coloration as described by Giacomini. This is usually referred to as the band of Giacomini. Posteriorly, the dentate gyrus follows the crus of the fornix up to the splenium of the corpus callosum. It extends posteriorly but obliquely anteriorly and medially towards the splenium of the corpus callosum around which it turns becoming the fasciolar gyrus. When the corpus callosum develops, the dentate gyrus protrudes below the splenium of the corpus callosum to form the fasciolar gyrus. At the levels of the corpus callosum’s trunk and the genu, the fasciolar gyrus extends and gets thinner to become the size of a very fine strip of grey matter the indusium griseum. This indusium griseum extends over the superior surface of the corpus callosum. With cell differentiation of the indusium griseum, white longitudinal fibres appear medially the medial and lateral longitudinal striae and clusters of grey matter appear laterally the taenia tecta. The dentate gyrus, taken as a whole, presents several particularities beyond the fact that its development is not finished.  The dentate gyrus is unique for a gyri of the cerebral cortex in that it crosses at both its origin and its end (diagonal band, Uncus band of Giacomini) grey matter of the cerebral hemisphere (uncus, anterior perforated substance).
    12. Fasciolar gyrus
      Gyrus fasciolaris
      Gyrus fasciolaire
      Giro faciolar
      A14.1.09.233
      THA:6069
      Dejerine (p303) fasciola cinerea. [Fc]                                                                                                                                                                                                    The fasciolar gyrus is the posterior continuation of the dentate gyrus as it turns around the splenium of the corpus callosum.
    13. Taenia tecta [tec]
      When the corpus callosum develops, the dentate gyrus protrudes below the splenium of the corpus callosum to form the fasciolar gyrus. At the levels of the corpus callosum’s trunk and the genu, the fasciolar gyrus extends and gets thinner to become the size of a very fine strip of grey matter, the indusium griseum. This indusium griseum extends over the superior surface of the corpus callosum. With cell differentiation of the indusium griseum, white longitudinal fibres appear medially, the medial and lateral  longitudinal striae and clusters of grey matter appear laterally, the taenia tecta.
    14. Lateral longitudinal stria
      Stria longitudinalis lateralis
      Strie longitudinale latérale
      Estria longitudinal lateral
      A14.1.09.247
      THA: 6083
      Dejerine (p303) nerfs de Lancisi
      See medial longitudinal stria
    15. Medial longitudinal stria
      Stria longitudinalis medialis
      Strie longitudinale médiale
      Estria longitudinal medial
      A14.1.09.248
      THA: 6084
      Dejerine (p303) nerfs de Lancisi
      When the corpus callosum develops, the dentate gyrus protrudes below the splenium of the corpus callosum to form the fasciolar gyrus. At the levels of the corpus callosum’s trunk and the genu, the fasciolar gyrus extends and gets thinner to become the size of a very fine strip of grey matter, the indusium griseum. This indusium griseum extends over the superior surface of the corpus callosum. With cell differentiation of the indusium griseum, white longitudinal fibres appear medially, the medial and lateral longitudinal striae and clusters of grey matter appear laterally, the taenia tecta. The indusium griseum, taenia tecta and the longitudinal striae are the frontoparietal part of the dentate gyrus.  For some animal species, the indusium griseum, the taenia tecta and the longitudinal striae become thicker anteriorly to the genu of the corpus callosum to form Zuckerkandt’s geniculate gyrus. The taenia tecta and the longitudinal striae terminate in various ways. Sometimes, the taenia tecta and the longitudinal striae project onto the anterior extremity of the cingulate gyrus at the level of the olfactory area of Broca. In other cases, the longitudinal striae end near the diagonal band. The longitudinal stiae then form the peduncle of the corpus callosum and diagonally traverse the anterior perforated substance where they are referred to as the diagonal band. Finally, they terminate in the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe, very close to the origin of the uncus band of Giacomini. The diagonal band and the uncus band of Giacomini are only separated by the uncus.
    16. Geniculate gyrus
      Dejerine (p128) Circonvolution géniculée [Cgn]
      For some animal species, the indusium griseum, the taenia tecta and the longitudinal striae become thicker anteriorly to the genu of the corpus callosum to form Zuckerkandt’s geniculate gyrus.
    17. Diagonal band
      Stria diagonalis
      Strie diagonale
      Banda diagonal; Cintilla diagonal
      A14.1.09.422
      THA: 6188
      Dejerine (p306) bandelette diagonale de Broca [bd]; faisceau olfactif de la corne d’Ammon de Zuckerkandl; pédoncule du septum lucidum (p308)
      The diagonal bands (of Broca) first appear on each side of the rostrum of the corpus callosum. The diagonal bands initially run together, parallel to the median line and anterior to the rostrum of the corpus callosum. The diagonal bands then diverge projecting laterally and posteriorly. They traverse diagonally the anterior perforated substance and run towards the adherent section of the temporal lobe. Usually, the diagonal bands form a distinct bundle, but sometimes the bundles are divided and can be displayed on the surface of the anterior perforated area. The origin of the diagonal bands at the level of the rostrum of the corpus callosum shows considerable variation. In most cases, the diagonal bands are continuous with the longitudinal striae that are located on the superior surface of the corpus callosum. In such cases, they run over the rostrum of the corpus callosum. In other cases, the longitudinal striae project into the cingulate gyrus such that the rostrum of the corpus callosum ends with a sharply unattached border below which emerge two white bundles that becomes the diagonal bands of Broca. As a consequence, each band appears to originate from the longitudinal fibres of the septum lucidum. It is for this reason that they have been termed the peduncle of the septum ludicum. In some other cases, the diagonal bands appear as if they were the continuation of the anterior extremity of the taenia tecta.
    18. Olfactory lobe 
    19. Anterior olfactory lobe
      Anterior olfactory lobe
      The anterior olfactory lobe is, as the name suggests, the anterior part of the olfactory lobe. It comprises the olfactory bulb, the olfactory peduncle, the olfactory trigone, and the olfactory area of Broca. The anterior and the posterior olfactory lobes are both located on the inferior surface of the cerebral hemisphere. The anterior olfactory lobe is unattached in most of its length. It lies underneath the orbital surface of the frontal lobe and occupies the olfactory sulcus. A pink-grey, small, ovoid body (the olfactory bulb) forms the anterior end of the olfactory lobe.
    20. Olfactory bulb 
      Bulbus olfatorius
      Bulbe olfactif
      Bulbo olfatorio
      A14.1.09.429
      THA : 6195
      Dejerine: (p304) Bulbe olfactif
      The olfactory bulb is a small, pink-grey, ovoid body measuring 8 to 9 millimetres in length and 3 to 4 millimetres in width. The olfactory bulb lies over the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. Numerous nerve fibres that constitute the olfactory nerves traverse the orifices of the cribriform plate. The olfactory peduncle, a white, triangular-shaped structure that is antero-posteriorly oriented, extends from the olfactory bulb.
    21. Olfactory peduncle (stalk)
      Pedunculus olfactorius
      Pédoncule olfactif
      Pedúnculo olfatorio
      A14.1.09.430
      THA : 6196
      Dejerine: (p304) pédoncule ou tractus olfactif ou bandelette olfactive
      The olfactory peduncle (wrongly often thought of as the olfactory nerve) is a white, triangular-shaped structure that is antero-posteriorly oriented and that extends from the olfactory bulb. It is an extension of the brain extension from the vesicle of the cerebral hemispheres. The inferior surface of the olfactory peduncle lies over the olfactory groove of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones. Its lateral surface follows closely the contours of the gyri bounding the olfactory sulcus, namely the rectus gyrus medially and the orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus laterally. Its superior edge forms a longitudinal ridge located in the olfactory sulcus and it is covered with a thin layer of grey matter.
    22. Subiculum
      Subiculum
      Subiculum
      Subículo
      A14.1.09.327
      THA: 6149
      Dejerine (p701)  Subiculum de la corne d'Ammon.
      The Subiculum is the component of the cortex of the parahippocampal gyrus that is continuous with the fusiform gyrus and that forms the medial lip of the collateral sulcus.
    23. Olfactory tubercle
      STuberculus olfactorius
      Tubercule olfactif
      Tubérculo olfatorio
      A14.1.09.433
      THA : 6199
      Dejerine: (p304) tubercule olfactif; trigone olfactif
      The olfactory tubercle, or olfactory trigon, is formed by the thickening of the olfactory peduncle at the level of the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The white structures originating from each of its lateral angles are referred to as the olfactory striae, there being lateral and medial striae. The striae are not proper roots but vestigial cerebral gyri that comparative anatomists refer to as the lateral and medial olfactory radiations of Edinger.
    24. Olfactory striae; Set of olfactory striae 
      Striae olfactoriae; Classis striarum olfactorium
      Stries olfactives; classe des stries olfactives
      Estrias olfatorias
      A14.1.09.434
      THA: 6200
    25. Olfactory striae - lateral stria
      Stria olfactoria lateralis
      Strie olfactive latérale
      Estria olfatoria lateral
      A14.1.09.436
      THA : 6202
      Dejerine: (p306) racine olfactive externe [Role]
      The lateral olfactory stria runs obliquely laterally and posteriorly towards the anterior edge of the lateral sulcus. The lateral olfactory stria forms the limits of the frontal gyri on the inferior surface of the cerebral hemisphere and joins the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe. According to some anatomists, the lateral stria terminates in reality in the amygdaloid nucleus. Comparative anatomical studies show that it is connected with the parahippocampal gyrus.
    26. Olfactory striae - medial stria
      Stria olfactoria medialis
      Strie olfactive médiale
      Estria olfatoria medial
      A14.1.09.435
      THA : 6201
      Dejerine: (p305) racine olfactive interne (Roli)
      The medial olfactory stria is covered by a thin layer of grey matter and is smaller, less regular, and shorter than the lateral olfactory stria. The medial stria runs posteriorly and medially and terminates in the olfactory area of Broca.
    27. Olfactory area of Broca  (CB) or olfactory crossroad of Broca
      Dejerine: (p305) Carrefour olfactif de Broca; Carrefour de l’hémisphère de Broca;
      The olfactory area of Broca is a small area located on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and below the rostrum of the corpus callosum. It is bounded posteriorly by the notch of His, that is continuous with the ‘fissura prima de His’. The ‘fissura serotina of His’ demarcates it inferiorly and is often concealed behind a “pli de passage” (“pli de passage” or annectant gyrus). A slight, but consistent, depression lies at that level that is related to the anterior cerebral artery when it moves from the anterior perforated substance. The olfactory area of Broca continues anteriorly with the medial frontal gyrus and posteriorly with the cingulate gyrus. Inferiorly and posteriorly, it receives the medial olfactory stria. Inferiorly and anteriorly, it receives the diagonal band of Broca. Between the medial olfactory stria and the diagonal band of Broca, the olfactory area of Broca is directly connected inferiorly to the medial part of the anterior perforated substance.
    28. Posterior olfactory lobe
      The posterior part of the olfactory lobe (or posterior olfactory lobe) includes the anterior perforated substance and the diagonal band of Broca. Both the posterior and the anterior olfactory lobes are located on the inferior surface of the cerebral hemisphere and encroach slightly its medial surface.
    29. Anterior perforated substance
      Substantia perforata anterior ; Substantia perforata rostralis
      Substance perforée antérieure
      Subtancia perforada anterior
      A14.1.09.437
      THA : 6203
      Dejerine : (p305-306) Espace perforé antérieur
      Located on each side of the optic chiasma, the anterior perforated substance is bounded anteriorly and medially by the optic nerves and anteriorly and laterally by the lateral olfactory stria that demarcates it from the insula. Posteriorly, it is bounded by the optic tract medially and by the uncus laterally. Its surface is coloured pink-grey and it is riddled with large vascular holes; the antero-lateral part allows passage of the lenticulostriate arteries that are branches of the internal carotid. The anterior perforated substance is crossed diagonally by a band of white substance, the diagonal band of Broca.
      The antero-medial part of the anterior perforated substance is part of the inferior surface of the head of the caudate nucleus The antero-medial part of the anterior perforated substance continues on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere shaped as a narrow grey band. Enclosed between the diagonal band and medial olfactory stria, it reaches superiorly the olfactory area de Broca. The posterior part of the anterior perforated substance corresponds to the inferior surface of the globus pallidus and the lateral part to the inferior surface of the putamen. However, whereas the head of the caudate nucleus protrudes onto the base of the brain, where it is not covered by grey matters, the globus pallidus and the putamen are separated from the grey band that covers the anterior perforated substance by a layer of white matter that is always apparent. These fibres belong to the olfactory radiations destined for the midbrain. They are directed posteriorly and cross partly the innominate substance of Reichert and the ansa lenticularis.
    30. Diagonal band
      Stria diagonalis
      Strie diagonale
      Banda diagonal; Cintilla diagonal
      A14.1.09.422
      THA: 6188
      Dejerine (p306) bandelette diagonale de Broca [bd] faisceau olfactif de la corne d’Ammon de Zuckerkandl; pédoncule du septum lucidum (p308)
      Dejerine (p306-308) bandelette diagonal de Broca; faisceaux olfactifs des cornes d’Ammon ; pédoncule du septum lucidum [bd]
      The diagonal bands (of Broca) first appear on each side of the rostrum of the corpus callosum. The diagonal bands initially run together, parallel to the median line and anterior to the rostrum of the corpus callosum. The diagonal bands then diverge projecting laterally and posteriorly. They traverse diagonally the anterior perforated substance and run towards the adherent section of the temporal lobe. Usually, the diagonal bands form a distinct bundle, but sometimes the bundles are divided and can be displayed on the surface of the anterior perforated area. The origin of the diagonal bands at the level of the rostrum of the corpus callosum shows considerable variation. In most cases, the diagonal bands are continuous with the longitudinal striae that are located on the superior surface of the corpus callosum. In such cases, they run over the rostrum of the corpus callosum. In other cases, the longitudinal striae project into the cingulate gyrus such that the rostrum of the corpus callosum ends with a sharply unattached border below which emerge two white bundles that becomes the diagonal bands of Broca. As a consequence, each band appears to originate from the longitudinal fibres of the septum lucidum. It is for this reason that they have been termed the peduncle of the septum ludicum. In some other cases, the diagonal bands appear as if they were the continuation of the anterior extremity of the taenia tecta.

    SULCI

    1. Cingulate sulcus
      Sulcus cinguli
      Sillon cingulaire
      Surco cingular
      A14.1.09.203
      THA:6039
      Dejerine (p287) Scissure calloso-marginale                                                                                                                                   The cingulate sulcus lies parallel to the superior surface of the corpus callosum and borders the cingulate gyrus. It has the shape of a stretched "S". It begins below the rostrum of the corpus callosum. At its origin, it passes anteriorly and turns around the genu of the corpus callosum. The cingulate sulcus then continues posteriorly towards the posterior part of the body of the corpus callosum. At this point, it bends at an obtuse angle and goes posteriorly and superiorly towards the superior margin of the cerebral hemisphere. The cingulate sulcus usually shows a notch immediately after the postcentral gyrus that can be seen on the lateral surface of the cerebral  hemisphere. In its convex part, the cingulate sulcus separates the cingular gyrus from the medial frontal gyrus. In its ascending part, it separates the precuneus from the paracentral lobule.
    2. Marginal branch; Marginal sulcus

      Ramus marginalis; sulcus marginalis
      Rameau marginal, sillon marginal
      Ramo marginal surco marginal
      A14.1.09.204
      THA:6040
      Dejerine (p287) calloso-marginal sulcus
      The marginal sulcus is the peripheral part of the cingulate sulcus and is located at the posterior part of the corpus callosum where the cingulate sulcus bends at an obtuse angle. The marginal sulcus is superiorly and posteriorly oriented towards the superior margin of the cerebral hemisphere.

    3. Subparietal sulcus

      Sulcus subparietalis
      Sillon sous-pariétal
      Surco subparietal
      A14.1.09.205
      THA:6041
      Dejerine (p289) Scissure sous-pariétale
      The subparietal sulcus and the cingulate sulcus together form the outer limit of the fronto-parietal section (cingulate gyrus) of Broca’s limbic lobe. These sulci separate Broca’s limbic lobe from the parietal lobe posteriorly and from the frontal lobe anteriorly.

    4. Sulcus of corpus callosum

      Sulcus corporis callosi
      Sillon du corps calleux
      Surco del cuerpo calloso
      A.14.1.09.202
      THA:6038
      Dejerine (p301) sinus du corps calleux; ventricule du corps calleux (Sabatier) (scc)
      The sulcus of the corpus callosum runs alongside the corpus callosum. It curves around the genu and the rostrum continuing further onto the surface of the brain within the prima notch of His (ip). The anterior cerebral artery runs within the sulcus of the corpus callosum and the sulcus separates the deep surface of the cingulate gyrus from the superior surface of the corpus callosum, the longitudinal stria (NL) and the taenia tecta (tec).

    5. Hippocampal sulcus

      Sulcus hippocampalis
      Sillon hippocampique
      Surco del hipocampo
      A14.1.09.236
      THA:6072
      Dejerine (p300) Sillon de l’hippocampe (h)
      The sulcus of the hippocampus that is related developmentally to the “scissure ammonique” of the fetus is continuous with the sulcus of the corpus callosum. The hippocampus sulcus is very deep in its anterior part. It usually presents at that level several four or five notches that form the digitations of Ammon’s horn. Located at its beginning between the uncus and the subiculum of Ammon’s horn, the hippocampus sulcus projects superiorly and posteriorly. It becomes shallower and bounds the deep surface of the subiculum and the subcallosum gyri separating the subiculum and the subcallosal gyri from the dentate gyrus. Along its path, the sulcus of the hippocampus presents numerous adjacent notches that cut deeply into the dentate gyrus to give the gyrus its particular appearance that has earned it its name. When reaching the level of the splenium of the corpus callosum, the sulcus of the hippocampus demarcates the subcallosum gyri and the isthmus of the limbic lobe from the fasciola cirenea. The sulcus of the hippocampus thereafter continues imperceptibly with the sulcus of the corpus callosum.

    6. Fimbriodentate sulcus

      Sulcus fimbriodentatus
      Sillon fimbrio-denté
      Surco fimbriodentado
      A14.1.09.238
      THA:6074
      Dejerine (p301) sillon fimbrio-godronné
      The fimbriodentate sulcus is a narrow, shallow sulcus that separates the dentate gyrus from the fimbria of the hippocampus.

    7. Collateral sulcus

      Sulcus collateralis
      Sillon collatéral
      Surco collateral
      A14.1.09.206
      THA:6042
      Dejerine: (p289) scissure collatérale
      Constant and deep, the collateral sulcus begins posteriorly at the occipital pole and ends towards the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe without reaching the temporal pole. The posterior half of the collateral sulcus lies parallel to the calcarine sulcus and separates the lingual gyrus from the fusiform gyrus or lateral occipitotemporal gyrus. The anterior half of the collateral sulcus separates the parahippocampal gyrus from the fusiform gyrus (lateral occipitotemporal gyrus). The collateral sulcus is sometimes interrupted by the temporolimbic “pli de passage” that connects the limbic lobe to the fusiform gyrus.     

    8. Rhinal sulcus

      Sulcus rhinalis
      Sillon rhinal
      Surco rinal
      A14.1.09.240
      THA:6076
      Dejerine (p298) incisures temporale de Schwalbe; sillon pre-uncique de Brissaud
      Anteriorly, the temporal pole extends beyond the uncus to which it is invariably connected by a continuous pli de passage that is more or less deeply notched by the temporal notch of Schwalbe (or sillon pre-uncique of Brissaud). The term, rhinal sulcus, is not used in the Dejerine atlas.

    9. Sillon primaire or fissura prima de His

      Dejerine (p304)
      The fissura prima of His is a cross-sectional sulcus that separates the anterior olfactory lobule from the posterior olfactory lobule. Situated behind the olfactory tubercle, the primary sulcus notches to a variable extent the internal surface of the cerebral hemisphere. The fissura prima of His extends to the edge of the convolution of the orbital surface of the frontal lobe. The term, fissura prima of His has not yet been recognised by the Terminologia Anatomica.

    10. Sillon tardif; fissura serotina de His; sillon secondaire 

      Dejerine (p109; 305)
      A somewhat indistinct sulcus, referred to by Dejerine as the fissura serotina of His, limits the olfactory area of Broca anteriorly and separates it from the cingulate gyrus.
      The olfactory area of Broca is bounded inferiorly by the fissura serotina of His. This fissura serotina of His is often concealed by a pli de passage. At that level, however, there is always a light depression occupied by the anterior cerebral artery when the anterior cerebral artery goes out of the anterior perforated substance (p305). This sulcus is not yet recognised by the Terminologia Anatomica.                         


09- Gillet’s drawing and Dejerine’s abbreviations (and one Tissot’s histological sclice with labels V1-2018)

    01- Inferior view of the cerebral hemispheres

    02- Lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere

    03- Lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere with the Insula

    04- Medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere

    05- Superior view of the cerebral hemispheres

    06- Horizontal slice of the cerebral hemisphere

    Tissot’s histological Frontal slice (637) and Dejerine’s abbreviations

References (V1-2018)

  1. Dejerine J., Dejerine-Klumpke A. (1895) Anatomie des centres nerveux, tome 1. Rueff et Cie, Paris
  2. Amunts K.et al. BigBrain: An Ultrahigh--‐ResoluCon 3D Human Brain Model. (2013) Science 340, 1472
  3. Terminologia Anatomica: Internationnal Anatomical Terminology. (1999) New York:Thieme Medical Publishers
  4. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS. Pli de Passage Fronto-Pariétal Moyen of Broca Separates the Motor Homunculus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:809–812, (2004)
  5. Alkadhi H. and Kollias SS. Pli de Passage Fronto-Pariétal Moyen of Broca Separates the Motor Homunculus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:809–812, (2004)

Acknowledgements

  1. Musée Dupyutren
    • Patrick CONAN
    • Patrice JOSSET
  2. Fondation Dejerine
    • Jacqueline MIKOL
  3. TEPARG Members
    • Odile PLAISANT
    • Bernard J MOXHAM (Wales, UK)
    • Alexis GUEDON (France)
    • Concha REBLET (Spain)
    • José Luiz BUENO LOPEZ (Spain)
    • Diogo PAIS (Portugal)
    • Stojanka ARSIC (Serbia)
    • Pierre SPRUMONT (Switzerland)
    • Stephen McHANWELL (UK)
  4. URDIA Members
    • Racky WADE (Senegal) (insula and cingulate gyrus)
    • Paule Joanne TOUSSAINT
  5. VIZUA 3D
    • Pierre Antoine VIDAL
    • Sylvain ORDUREAU
    • Chloé VANIER
  6. TRANSLATORS
    • Lydie FRERE
  7. EXPERT
    • Nina DRONKERS
  1. Students who participated in the project
    • Sonia ALVES (Thalamic veins)
    • Jean-Baptiste BANCILHON (fasciculus)
    • Sandro BENICHI (Thalamic syndrome)
    • Karl BOU NADER (fasciculus)
    • Axel COHEN (N accumbens)
    • Cassandre CREMADES (Brainstem)
    • Nina DECUYPERE (Thalamus)
    • Laure DE TRUCHIS
    • David DEUTSCH
    • Pauline DURAND (Thalamic syndrome)
    • Sébastien GAULTIER DALL’O (recalage)
    • Edouard GAUTHIER de CHARNACE (Dejerine-sottas syndrome)
    • Timotée GERBERT-FERRENDIER (Pulvinar)
    • Tatiana GREIGE (Thalamus)
    • Pierre HAMMOUM (Thalamus)
    • Marwan HAOUCH (Thalamus)
    • Gwenaelle IDEE (Frontal and Horizontal slices)
    • Marwan JAOUA (fasciculus)
    • Florent KRUST (Cervelet)
    • Adrien HUET (noyaux gris centraux)
    • Pierre HAETTEL (Thalamus)
    • Gabrielle LAMAURIE (Hippocampus)
    • Elisa LOUPPE (Hippocampus)
    • Rani MAKHOUL (Thalamic syndrome)
    • Rayan MEKOUI (Stratum calcarinum)
    • Emma OLIOSI (Thalamic syndrome)
    • Blanche PASCAL (Thalamus)
    • Theo PEZEL (fasciculus)
    • Anne POTIER (temporal et occipital lobe)
    • Chawkat RAMADANE (Parietal lobe)
    • Elodie ROMAN (Stratum calcarinum)
    • Romain STAMMLER (Brainstem)
    • Gabrielle TISSOT (Aphasia)
    • Pierre Alexis TOZZI (Frontal lobe)
    • Solène VALERY (Thalamus)
    • Sophie VILLARD (Parahippocampal gyrus)